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Short Description

The project Digital Crete: Mediterranean Cultural Itineries was implemented under the framework of the Greek Operational Program Information Society (Action 1: Education and Culture, Measure 1.3: Documentation, Management & Promotion of Greek Cultural Heritage) (www.infosociety.gr), which follows up the eEurope initiative of the European Union and which was funded by the 3rd European Community Support Framework. The same funding framework provided support for the continuation of the project (Expansion & Upgrade of Digital Crete). Digital Crete aims towards the creation of a cultural information system, consisting of digitized documentation and information regarding the cultural heritage of the island of Crete, from prehistory to the modern periods.

Digital Crete has incorporated the following inventory modules:

  • A Digital Archaeological Atlas of Crete from prehistory to the Roman period, through the use of satellite remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems technology (Scientific supervision by Apostolos Sarris)
  • A Database on the Western Art of the island of Crete during the Venetian period (Scientific supervision by Olga Gratziou)
  • A Database on El Greco (Dominikos Theotokopoulos) and his works
  • A Database on Ottoman Crete, including information related to the habitation and settlement patterns and existing monuments (Scientific supervision by Elias Kolovos  & Antonis Anastasopoulos)
  • A Database on the history of Crete in the 20th century (Scientific supervision by Christos Loukos)
  • Musical Routes – Digital Ethno-musicological collections of Crete (Scientific supervision by Christos Terzis and Irene Theodosopoulou)

The final results of the project include the creation of a Digital Documentation and Management Inventory Unit, which is established as a center for scientific research and educational activities. An infokiosk and a WEB site provide also continuous access to the domain of the cultural databases of I.M.S., which contain information from multiple sectors of culture (archaeology, history, art, etc) in a diachronic base.  The terminals of the Digital Documentation and Management Inventory Unit at IMS provide a faster and easier access to even more information that those which are accessible through the internet.

1. Archaeological Atlas of Crete
General Information
Research Team
Enviromental Risk Assessment
Enviromental Attributes
Statistical Data
Population Data
Climatic Data
Topographic Elements
Time / Chronological Categories
Archaeological Data Retrieval
Topographic Mapping through GPS
Satellite Images
Geological Attributes
GENERAL INFORMATION

The Digital Archaeological Atlas of Crete was implemented by the Laboratory of Geophysical - Satellite Remote Sensing and Archaeo-environment of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies. The project, which is considered as a continuation of the Digital Archaeological Map of Lasithi, contains a database of the archaeological and historical information of the island of Crete, with more emphasis to the time period spanning from the Prehistoric times to the Roman period. The database has given emphasis to the spatial, temporal and historical attributes of the sites and provides a wealth of information regarding the local extent of the sites, environmental and climatic information, photographic material and archaeological information regarding the major architectural monuments and the usage of the sites in different time periods. The database is accompanied by a series of thematic maps that are available through the internet. The cartographic infrastructure includes satellite images of the island of Crete, digital geological, environmental, land-use, vegetation, climatic and topographic maps. Archaeological information was retrieved mainly through published material in international journals, monographs and books. At the same time, the contribution of researchers and local population was crucial in providing additional information and in re-locating the archaeological sites, the mapping of which made available through satellite imagery, aerial photos and GPS surveying. More than 5,500 toponyms related to the cultural heritage of Crete have been entered to the database and many of them have been mapped and presented at the corresponding WEB_GIS applications. A VRML application, a catalogue of the museums of Crete and short interviews from researchers dealing with the culture and archaeology of Crete are also included. Both, the digital databank and the corresponding cartographic products are available through different media such as the Digital Documentation and Management Inventory Unit and an Infokiosk at the facilities of IMS-FORTH, as well as through a specially designed WEB page. The specific effort is aimed to create a nodal point of reference for students and researchers who are engaged in archaeological investigations and study the cultural heritage of the island of Crete. At the same time, the project is targeting towards the better understanding of the cultural landscape and it is hoped to become a dissemination tool of the archaeological heritage of Crete. We believe that this effort contributes considerably in the promotion of issues that concern the archaeological research in Crete, the exchange of experiences and the diffusion of ideas.

RESEARCH TEAM

Scientific Responsible
Dr. Apostolos Sarris, Phd, MA, MSc, BA

Information retrieval - GPS mapping
Eleni Peraki, ΜΑ, ΒΑ
Nektaria Chatzoyiannaki, ΜΑ, ΒΑ
Maria Elvanidou, ΜΑ, ΒΑ
Dr. Evagelia Karimali, PhD., BA
Katerina Kouriati, ΜΑ, ΒΑ
Marianna Katifori, ΜΑ, ΒΑ
Evaggelia Kappa, ΜΑ, ΒΑ
Katerina Athanasaki, ΜΑ, ΒΑ
Gemma Marakas, ΒΑ

Cartographic Products & GPS mapping
Vasilis Trigkas, ΒΑ
Nikos Papadopoulos, PhD, ΜΑ, ΒΑ
Marilena Kokkinaki, ΒΑ, ΜΑ
Georgia Kakoulaki, BA
Paraskevi Seferou, BA

Dadabase Construction
Giorgos Papadakis, ΒΑ
Michalis Papazoglou, ΜΑ, ΒΑ
Aris Kydonakis, BA

Translation of material
Sandy Mc Gilvrey

At the same time, we have to mention the contribution of the research team of the Digital Archaeological Map of Lasithi and the help of many others who played a crucial role in the project by providing additional information or helped in the fieldwork activities.  Finally, part of the cartographic material which is used in the particular project is coming from the results of the EMERIC I program.

ENVIROMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT

The cartographical products of the Archaeological Atlas of Crete include maps related to the environmental risk assessment of the archaeological sites.  The specific maps refer to the mapping of the seismic activity (as it has been recorded by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), a map representing the landslides risk assessment and a map representing the risk of agricultural fires.  At the same time, there are also maps referring to the recurrence of the fire incidences and the total burning area per fire incidence.
More specifically, the seismological data were collected by the WEB site of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and concern historical data and the latest (last century) seismic activity focusing in the wider region of Crete.  Data expand up to May 2005. The maps are showing the epicentres of the earthquakes of magnitude larger than 4R and the density of the corresponding epicentres.
The landslides risk model made use of the parameters of the unified geological map of Crete, hydrolithological map, slope, the mean rainfall and the presence or absence of faults within a buffer zone of 1Km.  The model was based on spatial analyses, Boolean operators and weights of evidence through the use of GIS
The fire risk assessment was based on an informal classification of the risk resulting from the evaluation of criteria that do not concern the anthropogenic parameters (and which influence the frequency and the burning area).  The model was based on the digital image processing of LANDSAT 5 TM (1999 image capture), which was used for the classification of vegetation based on its reflectance at the NIR (0,76 - 0,90μm).  The vegetation type, the fire potentiality of the major types of vegetation, the historical registries of fires and the Digital Elevation Model. 

ENVIROMENTAL ATTRIBUTES

The environmental attributes include the reclamation regions of NATURA, together with the digitized maps of landform/landuse and land capability of the Ministry of Agriculture / Forestry Division.

Land capability maps include the following attributes:

Categories

POTENTIAL FOR TIMBER GROWTH

Category 1

Lands without limitations for timber growth (%)

Category 2

Lands with slight limitations for timber growth (%)

Category 3

Lands with moderate limitations for timber growth (%)

Category 4

Lands with severe limitations for timber growth (%)

Category 5

Lands with extremely severe limitations for timber growth (%)

Landform/Landuse maps include the following parameters:

Code

Code of Landuse

Category code

Category Type

Surf_geol1

Surf_geol2

Surfacial geology1 Surfacial geology2

T

Tertiary deposits

C

Hard Limestones

A

Alluvium

X

Schists

Physiogr1

Physiogr2

Physiography 1 Physiography 2

0

Flat areas

1

Steep summits

2

Escarpments, cliffs

3

Rounded summits

4

Upper slopes

5

Middle slopes

6

Terraces

7

Lower slopes

8

Open valleys

9

Closed valleys

Soil_depth

Soil depth

1

Deep

2

Deep and Shallow

3

Deep and Bare

4

Shallow and Deep

5

Shallow

6

Shallow and Bare

7

Bare and Deep

8

Bare and Shallow

9

Bare

Erosion

Erosion

1

None

2

None and Moderate

3

None and Severe

4

Moderate and None

5

Moderate

6

Moderate and Severe

7

Severe and None

8

Severe and Moderate

9

Severe

Slope

Slope

1

Gentle

2

Gentle and Moderate

3

Gentle and Steep

4

Moderate and gentle

5

Moderate

6

Moderate and steep

7

Steep and gentle

8

Steep and moderate

9

Steep

Land region

Land region

G

Broadleaved evergreen zone

Artif_veg

Degree of artificilization of vegetation

1

Nil

2

Moderate

3

Severe

4

No vegetation

5

Grassland

6

Phrygana

7

Agriculture

Aspect

Aspect

BB

North

BN

North & South

QQ

Variable

NB

South & North

NN

South

EE

Nil

EB

Nil & North

EN

Nil & South

BE

North & Nil

NE

South & Nil

QE

Variable & Nil

EQ

Nil & Variable

 

Code: (Surficial geology+Physiography)-Soil depth/Erosion/Slope-Serial number-(Land region+Degree of Artificilization of vegetation)-Aspect

The serial number refers to the accompanying card with the description of the Land Type pattern of the map unit.

STATISTICAL DATA

       The Digital Archaeological Atlas of Crete allows the interactive and updated retrieval of statistical data concerning the data included in the archaeological database.  The criteria of the statistical analysis refer to the following attributes:

  • Percentage of Declared archaeological sites
  • Percentage of mapping techniques (percentages corresponding to the GPS mapping, digitization techniques and w/o topographic mapping & coordinates)
  • Type of Research Methodology (Archaeo-environmental Studies, Excavation Techniques, Surface Surveys, Geophysical Research)
  • Archaeological sites in each prefecture and municipality
  • Archaeological sites as a function of chronological period
  • Archaeological sites as a function of usage

POPULATION DATA

      The maps of population data include the overlay of the distribution of archaeological sites on the digital maps representing the modern villages and towns, as well as the population data of the municipalities (OTA) for the periods 1913, 1920, 1928, 1940, 1951, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001.  The number of villages and towns is also included in each municipality.

 

CLIMATIC DATA

            The climatic data which are included in the corresponding thematic maps of the Digital Archaeological Atlas of Crete represent records of the mean monthly rainfall for the periods 1990-2000 (period 1990) and 200-2005 (period 2000), as well as of the mean monthly temperature for the year 2000.  Maps were created through interpolation algorithms by taking data from 65 meteorological stations (National Meteorological Service and Ministry of Agriculture) spread all over Crete.

TOPOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS

           The topographic maps of Crete contain attributes which are included in the topographic diagrams 1:50,000 scale of the Geographic Service of the Army.  These attributes have been also updated from geomorphological elements that are obvious from stereoscopic images of SPOT, ASTER and LANDSAT satellites.
          The topographic attributes contain information from all 4 prefectures of the region of Crete, namely Chania, Rethymno, Herakleio and Lasithi.  These attributes include among others a representation of the location of villages and towns, lakes, rivers, primary and secondary road network, caves, quarries, elevation lines, a.o.  Stereoscopic images of SPOT satellite were also used for creating the Digital Elevation model (DEM) of the region, together with maps of aspect, hillshade, and slope.
          The topographic maps 1:50,000 scale of the Geographic Service of the Army consist of the following sections (map sheets):

Τοπογραφικοί Χάρτες Κρήτης

Agios Nikolaos (Crete)

Herakleion

Palaikastron

Antiskarion

Ierapetra

Palaiochora

Ano Viannos

Kastellion (Kisamos)

Perama

Anogia

Kato Chorion

Perivolia

Achendrias

Melabes

Rethymnon

Vatolakkos

Mochos

Sellia

Vrysai

Nisoi Dionysades

Siteia

Epano Archanai

Nisos Gavdos

Tymbakion

 

 

Chania

 

 

 

 



TIME / CHRONOLOGICAL CATEGORIES

 

Palaeolithic

Early Palaeolithic

Middle Palaeolithic

Upper Palaeolithic

 

Mesolithic

Early Mesolithic

Middle Mesolithic

Late Mesolithic

 

Neolithic

 

Early Nolithic

Middle Neolithic

Late Neolithic

Final Neolithic

(SubNeolithic)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Minoan

 

 

Early Minoan

 

 

 

EΜ Ι

 

Pre-Palatial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Palatial

 

 

EΜ ΙΙ

 

 

EΜ ΙΙΙ

 

 

Middle Minoan

 

 

 

 

ΜΜ ΙΑ

 

 

 

Old Palace

 

 

ΜΜ ΙΒ

 

 

ΜΜ ΙΙΑ

 

 

ΜΜ ΙΙΒ

 

 

ΜΜ ΙΙΙΑ

Neo-Palatial

 

 

ΜΜ ΙΙΙΒ

 

 

 

LateMinoan

 

 

 

 

Mycenaean

Mycenaean Ι

LΜ ΙΑ

LΜ ΙB

Mycenaean ΙΙ-ΙΙΙΑ

LΜ ΙΙ

Mycenaean ΙΙΙB-C

LΜ ΙΙΙΑ

 

Old-Palatial

LΜ ΙΙΙΒ

LΜ ΙΙΙΓ

Subminoan -

Dark Ages / Protogeometric

SubMycenaean

 

Geometric

Early Geometric

Orientalizing

Middle Geometric

Late Geometric

Archaic

Classical

Hellenistic

   Greek-Roman

Roman

Late Roman

Palaeochristian

 

Byzantine

1st Byzantine

Arab Times

2nd Byzantine

Venetian

 

Ottoman

Early Ottoman

Late Ottoman

   Modern times

Historical times

Unclear



ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA RETRIEVAL

The information that accompanies the Archaeological Atlas of Crete has been retrieved by a number of Greek and foreign journals, monographs, series and books. Emphasis has been given on Prehistoric to Roman times, while a number of sites of the historical or more recent times have been also recorded, accordingly.
For each archaeological site/settlement the following have been reported, depending always on their availability:

  • Name of the site
  • Closest village/town
  • Municipality-province
  • Reclamation status
  • Conservation zone
  • Conservation status
  • Preservation condition
  • Dimensions of the archaeological site
  • Time span - usage/typology - chronology verification.  The particular entry concerns attributes of the site regarding its type/classification in each chronological period and the corresponding sites name or toponym or secondary location names.
  • General information concerning excavation (systematic, rescue, test)
  • General information regarding the surface survey method (systematic, non-systematic, walking/systematic)
  • Name of the excavator/researcher
  • Year/s of survey/excavation
  • General information regarding the geophysical research, archaeo-environmental studies, the corresponding researchers and thir affiliation and year/s of the research.
  • General remarks based on bibliography, in order to provide the reader with the basic features of the archaeological site.
  • References and bibliography from International journals, monographs, PhDs, MA theses, books, series, etc.
  • Photographic material and plans.
  • In a limited number of cases there are also videos of the researchers commending on their research at the specific sites.

All the above fields are being filled, provided that systematic research has been carried out and results of this research have been made public.  In specific cases, such as a) when surface survey has taken place without excavation, b) when excavation is not yet completed and c) when the study of the ceramics, finds or other foundation stones has not been published yet, it was not possible to provide the necessary information needed for filling the data base fields.  In such cases, a more general date (e.g. LM instead of LMIIIC) and type (e.g. archaeological site instead of settlement, town, village, metallurgical site, shrine, sanctuary, cemetery, isolated building, farmstead, villa etc.) is given or it is reported that evidence so far does not qualify to answer questions related to the type and date of the sites.
It has also to be mentioned that the archaeological database of Crete contains some unpublished data, which are not available through the internet.  The particular information is available at the facilities of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies and it will be made available through the internet as soon as they will be published from the corresponding researchers.
Archaeologists' opinions concerning location and chronology are sometimes different, especially concerning sites that have not been excavated yet or studied systematically. In such cases, different terms are adopted for the same site (e.g. farmstead/country house or villa) or its chronology (e.g. LMIA or LMIB).  Contrasting views as well as arguments are noted in the comments.
For the need of the research project, a large number of Greek and foreign journals and books has been used, referring to archaeological sites/settlements, caves, industrial, religious, burial sites, isolated buildings, castles, villas, guard posts, and roads, situated in East Crete mainly from Neolithic to Roman periods.



TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING THROUGH GPS

The use of accurately defined coordinates of sites is very important in a Geographic Information System, in order to be used for the necessary geometric corrections and transformation of all data in a common reference system.

By the term "coordinates" we mean the geodetic longitude, the angle between a reference plane and a plane passing through the point, both planes being perpendicular to the equatorial plane, and the geodetic latitude, the angle from the equatorial plane to the vertical direction of a line normal to the reference ellipsoid.

The most up-to-date way of plotting and specifying the coordinates of a site, so as its height, is by using a Global Positioning System, usually referred as GPS. In order to provide a global positioning capability, a number of 21 satellites (plus 3 substitutes), evenly spaced in six circular 12-hour orbits inclined 55o to the equator plane, are employed. In any event, the planned constellation will provide a minimum of four satellites in good geometric position, 24 hours per day anywhere on earth. Depending on the selected elevation angle, there can often be more than the minimum number of satellites available, which can reach the number of 10.

The point positioning is performed in a specific way. Let's consider the satellites frozen in space at a given instant. The space coordinates relative to the centre of the earth of each satellite can be computed from the ephimeris broadcast by the satellite. If the ground receiver, defined by the geocentric position vector , could employ a clock that was set precisely to the GPS system time, the true distance or range to each satellite could be accurately measured. Thus, we could determine the distance of the receiver from the center of the earth by solving the equation  (fig.1). 

Figure 1  Principle of satellite positioning (fig 1.1, p.5, Hofmann-Wellen et al., Global Positioning System : Theory and Practice, N.York 1993)

Modern GPS receivers apply a slightly different technique. They typically use a clock, set approximately to GPS time. Thus an offset from the true GPS time exists, which we can overcome by measuring four distances to four satellites (simultaneously).  These distances are called pseudoranges R since they are the true range plus (or minus) a small extra distance  resulting from the receiver clock error or bias δ.

A simple model for the pseudorange is , with c being the velocity of the light.

The point position can be solved by resection as before except we now need four pseudoranges to solve for the four unknowns (these are the three coordinates latitude, longitude, height and the clock bias). The range error  could be eliminated in advance by taking the difference between the pseudoranges measured from one site to two satellites or two different positions of one satellite.

Thus, one can conclude that the accuracy of the position determined using a single receiver is affected by the following factors :

  • Accuracy of each satellite's position
  • Accuracy of the pseudorange measurement
  • Geometry

The number of advantages by GPS positioning is large :

  • No visual contact between the observation stations is necessary, in opposition to other topographic methods,
  • The coordinates are recorded in a global reference system, independent of local reference datums,
  • Measurements do not depend on weather conditions and can be conducted all day long,
  • The positioning is done with accuracy and quickness,
  • The positioning is three-dimensional.

   However there are also some disadvantages:

  • The receivers can't be used in subterranean working or under trees, because there is not visual contact with the satellites,
  • Usually the results, being in the global reference system, have to be transformed in the local datums,
  • The GPS elevations aren't orthometric, which means they aren't measured from the surface of the sea,
  • The cost of the receivers is high, for a moderate user,
  • Training and experience is required in order to use the receivers.

As mentioned before, the full constellation provides a global coverage, with 4 to 8 satellites for each point position. This is achieved with an almost circular orbit in an approximately 20200km height from the earth surface and a period of 12 hours. Because of their height, we can observe simultaneously a large number of satellites. Usually the satellites are observed in a specific vertical angle over the receiver's antenna, an angle which is referred as a "mask angle" and is usually set in 15o. The reason of using a mask angle is that tropospheric effects on the signal propagation are especially unpredictable for altitudes within the mask region.

The GPS satellites provide a platform for radio receivers, atomic clocks, computers and various ancillary equipments used to operate the system. The electronic equipment of each satellite allows the user to measure a pseudorange R to the satellite and each satellite broadcasts a signal, which allows the user to determine the spatial position  of the satellite for arbitrary instants. The auxiliary equipment of each satellite, among others, consists of two 7m2 solar panels for power supply and a propulsion system that enables orbit adjustments and stability control.

Satellite categories

There are four satellite categories in use and a fifth programmed to develop and operate in the future: Block I, Block II, Block IIΑ, Block IIR, Block ΙΙΙ. The Block I (satellites no.1-11) satellites have been used from 1978 to 1985 and they were expected to have a lifetime of 4,5 years, a period that has been by far exceeded. The first Block II (satellites no.12-21) satellite was launched in 1989 with expected lifetime of 7,5 years. A significant difference between those two categories has to do with U.S.A. security. While the first category provides full access to the civilian users, some signals of the second are restricted. The second category's evolution is Block IIA (satellites no.22-40). A forth category (satellites no.41-60) replaced the second and third around 1995, with predicted lifetime 10 years and with higher accuracy clocks. Finally Block IIΙ (satellites no.61-ff.) satellites are planned to replace the existing ones around the year 2004.

Satellite Signal

The actual carrier broadcast by the satellite is a spread spectrum signal. The key to the system's accuracy is the fact that all signal components are precisely controlled by atomic clocks. For example, the Block II satellites have four on-board time standards, two rubidium and two caesium clocks. The frequency in which the satellites transmit is the fundamental L-band of 10.23MHz. From this fundamental frequency derive two signals, the L1 and L2 carrier waves generated by multiplying the fundamental frequency by 154 and 120, respectively, thus yielding L1 = 1575.42MHz and L2 = 1227.60MHz. The dual frequency are essential for eliminating the major source of error, the ionospheric refraction.

The pseudoranges that are derived from measured travel time of the signal from each satellite to the receiver use two pseudorandom noise codes that are superimposed onto the two base carriers. The first code C/A-code (Coarse/Acquisition - code), which is available for civilian use, is on purpose omitted from the L2 frequency. This omission allows the U.S. government to control the information broadcast by the satellites and thus denies full system accuracy to nonmilitary users. 
The second code is the P-code (Precision - code) has been reserved for the U.S. military and other authorized users. The P-code is modulated on both carriers L1 and L2.

In addition to the two codes a data message is modulated onto the carriers comprising satellite ephemeris, ionospheric modeling coefficients, status information, system time and satellite clock bias.

There are basically two methods for denying civilian users the full use of the system: Selective Availability and Anti-Spoofing.

The first method was introduced in 1990. The denial of accuracy has been accomplished by "dithering" the satellite clock frequency in a way that it prevents from accurately measuring instantaneous pseudoranges. This form mainly affects any one-receiver operation, while, when pseudoranges are differenced between two receivers, the dithering effect is largely eliminated.

The second method of accuracy denial is to truncate the transmitted message so that the coordinates of the satellites cannot be accurately computed. This can be done by a "turn off" of the P-code or by invoking an encrypted code (Y-code) denying access to all but authorized users.

Control Segment

The main operational tasks of this segment are the tracking of the satellites for the orbit and clock determination and prediction modeling, time synchronization of the satellites, and upload of the data message to the satellites. This way the proper function of the satellites is ensured.

The master control station is located in Colorado Springs, U.S.A., while five monitors stations are situated in Hawaii, Colorado Springs, Ascension Island (South Atlantic Ocean), Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean) and Kwajalein (North Pacific Ocean). The monitor stations are responsible for information concerning the GPS time and Ephemerides.

User Segment

The users are divided in two categories, military and civilian.

In the military user segment, even from the early days of the system's use, there were plans to incorporate a GPS receiver into virtually every major defense system. Every aircraft, ship, land vehicle, and even groups of infantry would have the appropriate GPS receiver to coordinate their military activities.

In the civilian user segment GPS is used widely, as much in sea and air navigation, as in other applications, like those of airphotogrammetry and every land and geodetic control survey, as well as to archaeology.

Basic components of a GPS receiver

A GPS system consists of 5 principal components: antenna, receiver, processor, input/output device and power supply.

Antenna
Satellite signals are received via the antenna, which provides near hemispherical coverage. The shape of the antenna varies according to the application, for which is used. Thus a careful   selection is required in order to have optimum results.

Receiver
Two basic receiver types exist today : (1) those that track both codes (C/A και P-code) and (2) those that only track C/A code. A number of variations exist to the main type, such as codeless receivers in L2 frequency.

Most receivers have multiple channels, whereby each channel tracks the transmission from a single satellite.

Navigation/Receiver Processor
A processor is generally required to control and command the receiver through its operational sequence. In some receivers the processor is embodied, whereas in others is autonomous.

Input/Output Device
This device is the interface between the GPS set and the user. There are two types: internal and external. The device allows the data input and controls the receiver status and the navigation parameters.

Power Supply
It can be either integral, external, or combination of the two. Alkaline or lithium batteries are used for integral use, while batteries or electricity can be used in external power supply.

The types of receivers available at this time are quite a lot. The selection of the set depends on a number of parameters :

  • Provided accuracy in positioning,
  • Frequencies and codes of recording,
  • Capability of storing the recorded data,
  • Device dimensions,
  • Energy consumption,
  • Shock and vibrations resistance,
  • Cost,
  • Temperature and humidity extremes, etc.

Recording and Mapping Techniques

Until some time ago, recording with a single GPS receiver provided accuracy of about 100m, because it only had the ability to use one frequency. After the recent release of the second frequency, it is estimated that the measurements will have an even better accuracy, even with only one receiver. However some applications demand even subcentimetre accuracy. Thus when referring to such measurements, we talk about measurements of the vector between two (or more) GPS instruments. This observation technique is called differential positioning. It involves placing a continuous tracking receiver at a fixed site of known position and using a second receiver for recording at the sites of interest.  Comparing computed pseudoranges with measured pseudoranges we can correct the data from the roving receiver through the data of the fixed site receiver.

There are a number of variations in differential observation :

The observation technique in which both receivers involved remain fixed in position is called static positioning. The static method is the technique used since the  early GPS surveys and requires hours of recording. A variation of this technique is the rapid static positioning, in which one receiver remains fixed and records, while the other moves from point to point and records for a limited period of time.

A second technique in which one receiver remains fixed while the second receiver moves is called "kinematic" surveying. It is demonstrated that by this method a subcentimetre vector accuracy could be obtained, with a recording time of a few seconds. Like in the aforementioned technique, one receiver remains fixed while the second moves and records. A variation is the stop and go positioning, in which the first receiver remains fixed and the second records by moving and stopping at specified points for a short period of time.

While all of the above mentioned techniques require processing and corrections after the field work, there is a technique that provides corrections automatically by using transmitters to transmit the corrections of the pseudoranges of the fixed receiver to the roving receiver in order to improve its measurements of the pseudoranges. The technique is called real-time kinematic positioning.

GPS surveying of the archaeological sites of Crete.

Contacting a survey in order to take GPS measurements of archaeological sites, demands careful planning and organization.

At first, a catalogue containing all the sites and important relevant information about their location was created. In addition, the approximate location of the sites was marked on the 1:50000 topographic maps, according to the location stated in the relevant bibliography.  It has also to be mentioned that data collected prior to this project by the Laboratory of Geophysical - Satellite Remote Sensing & Archaeo-environment (IMS/FORTH) were also incorporated to the data base.

In every period, a team consisting of at least two trained persons was mobilized.  Different GPS sensors were used, including a Trimble receiver, 2 differential Ashtech Z12 Geodetic stations (sub-cm accuracy), a Leica GS20 (sub-m accuracy) and a Thales MobileMapper with ArcPAD (1-3m accuracy) were used.  In each case, the sensor type, accuracy and day of mapping was recorded.  For the case of Leica GS20, differential corrections were carried out through the available geodetic stations at the internet.  In the case of the differential receivers of Ashtech and Trimble, static differential positioning was chosen.  In all cases, measurements were conducted for a period of 2-10 minutes in each site.


GPS recording at Chalinomouri with an Ashtech receiver


GPS recording at the Kalamaki quarry with a Trimble receiver

The selection of points to be recorded each time, varied according to the case. Where the archaeological remains were visible, an effort was made to take down the perimeter of the site, by recording a number of points. In cases where topographic plans of the site existed, distinctive points of the plans were recorded and assigned on the plans. In sites without surface relics, a couple of points were recorded in order to define the size of the place.  The same was done in caves, where just one point was recorded in their entrance, since the GPS could not record under shelters.

Besides the archaeological sites, a number of ground control points (GCPs) were recorded. The measurements were taken in places, which were visible in the airphotos and satellite images, in order to use them for georeference and for the conversion to the national coordinate system (EGSA'87).

Measurements of the sites were recorded in WGS'84 and they were later transformed to the EGSA'87 coordinate reference system. While the WGS'84 is the reference system used by the GPS units, the EGSA'87 is currently used by the National Cadastre of Greece. After the processing, the coordinates were exported and stored in an Excel file in order to be able to import them in the Geographic Information System and the accompanying database.

GPS recording at Nirou Chani, Herakleion with Leica GS20.

References

  • Hoffmann-Wellenhof - Lichtenegger - Collins, GPS : Theory and Practice, second edition, New York 1992.
  • Alfred Leick, GPS Satellite Surveying, U.S.A. 1990.
  • Elliott D. Kaplan (ed.), Understanding GPS Principles and Applications, Boston 1996
  • Peter H. Dana, Global Positioning System Overview, The Geographer's Craft Project, Department of Geography, The University of Texas at Austin, 1999
    στο www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html.

A collection of data concerning the orbit, velocity and geometric position of the satellites.

 



SATELLITE IMAGES

Since a typical image of Landsat satellite covers a region of 180km x 180km,  a total of 2 images were used for the creation of the mosaic of the wider region of Crete.  The mosaicing procedure was carried out for all spectral channels of Landsat 7, consisting of 3 bands in the VIS area of the electromagnetic spectrum, 3 bands in the NIR and 1 band in the ThIR zone.  Two images were used: one for the coverage of West Crete (image taken on 6/5/2003) and one for the coverage of East Crete (image taken on 10/4/2002).  Both images had a cloud coverage of 0% and a resolution of 30m.  The Landsat images constituted the background layer upon which the archaeological sites of Crete were overlayed. 
In a similar way, the presentation of the archaeological sites within the urban environment of the 4 major cities of Crete (namely, Chania, Rethymno, Herakleio and Agios Nikolaos) was achieved through the use of Quickbird satellite images with 1m spatial resolution.



GEOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES

The presentation of the archaeological sites on the geological map of Crete includes the elongates, possible and visible faults, the hidrolithological map and an updated version of the unified geological formations.  The classification of the faults into certainly active, active, possible active and inactive/geological faults was based on their possible connection to the seismic activity of the region (EMERIC I).  The unified geological map of Crete was created in order to avoid problems related to the discontinuities of the geological formations from different geological sheets of IGME.  The generalizeds categories that were used are listed in the following table:

GEOLOGICAL FORMATION / CATEGORY

CODE

Carbonates of Allochtonous Series

K.m

Carbonate Tectonic Nappe of Pindos Zone

K-E

Carbonate Tectonic Nappe of Tripolis Zone

K.k

Carbonate Tectonic Nappe of Tripaliou Zone

T.br

Plattenkalk

J-E

Neogene

Mk

Neogene

Mm.I

Ophiolite Complex of Allochonous Series

o

Quaternary

Q.al

Flysch of Pindos Tectonic Nappe

fo

Flysch of Tripolis Tectonic Nappe

ft

Flysch  - Schist of Allochtonous Series

f

Phyllites - Quartzite Series

Ph-T

The above classification scheme resulted from the unification of the following geological formations of the IGME maps sections of the island of Crete:

A_A

CODE

GENERAL CATEGORY

DESCRIPTION

CHRONOLOGICAL PERIOD

1.

al

Alluvial

Alluvial deposits : loose sandy-clayed material, terra rossa with rounded and angular pebbles in small internal basins and eluvial mantle material

Pleistocene - Holocene

2.

al-c

Alluvial

Recent littoral deposits with gravels

Holocene

3.

al-c1

Alluvial

Recent littoral deposits with gravels

Holocene

4.

al-c2

Alluvial

Recent torrential deposits. Pebbles and sand

Holocene

5.

al-d

Alluvial

Recent littoral deposits with dunes

Holocene

6.

al-s

Alluvial

Recent littoral deposits with sand

Holocene

7.

al-sc

Alluvial

Colluvial deposits. Talus and slope fans debris

Holocene

8.

al-θ

Alluvial

Recent littoral deposits with dunes

Holocene

9.

Qal2

Alluvial

Alluvial deposits : loose loams, clays, sands and gravels.

Holocene

10.

qt2

Alluvial

Recents alluvial deposits : marls and clays

Holocene

11.

al

Alluvial deposits

Alluvial deposits at the river beds: unconsolidated materials consisting of gravels, sands and silt

Holocene

12

T4.k.sh

Alternations of limestones

Alternations of limestones and schists (Kateriana beds)

Middle?-Upper Carnian

13.

Amf

Amphibolites

Amphibolite in the phyllitic series

Permian - Triassic

14.

α

Andesites

Andesite in the phyllitic series

Permian or carboniferous

15.

ag

Ankerites

Ankerite

Permian - Triassic

16.

Js-Ks.hn

Argillites and schist-cherts

Argillites and schist-cherts:polychromatic, fine-grained shales and schistose, very thin-bedded clayer marls

Malm-Albian

17.

Jm-s.sh

Argillites-schists-cherts

Argillites-schists-cherts:dark-polychromatic, carbonate, quartzose shales occurring locally strongly deformed

Dogger-Lower Malm?

18

J.k

Bedded limestones

Bedded limestones: grey-white, medium-bedded, granular and crystallized limestones

Dogger-Lower Malm?

19.

Js-ki.f

Boeotian flysch

Boeotian flysch: rhythmic or irregular alternations of multicoloured, thin-bedded limestones,marls pelites and sandstones, with various lithological composition

Upper Jurassic?Lower Cretaceous?

20.

Pli.m,g

Breccia with gypsum

Marly breccia of reworked neogene particles with gypsum blocks.

Lower Pliocene

21.

Mm-s.c,m,k

Breccia-conglomerates

Breccia-conglomerates,siltstones, marls and limestones: polymict, semi-cohesive, heterometric, semi-cohesive, heterometric, continental, breccia-conglomerates at the basin margins.

Middle?Upper Miocene

22.

Pt.br

Breccias

Breccias : composed of light coloured and dark, preneogene limestone componets in a calcareous matrix, passing upwards into polymict conglomerates

Pleistocene

23.

Q.br

Breccias

Slope breccias

Holocene - Pleistocene

24.

M4-5

Breccias and Conglomerates

Clastic rock formation (Prina complex) : consists of  well-bedded breccias, breccio-conglomerates, conglomerates with various fine-grained, occasionally fossiliferous, intermediate beds.

Up. Serravallian - Low.Tortonian

25.

M4-5.br

Breccias and Conglomerates

Prina comlex : bedded breccias, breccio-conglomerates and conglomerates

Up. Serravallian - Low.Tortonian

26.

Mm-s

Breccias and Conglomerates

Breccias and conglomerate breccias.

Middle - Upper Miocene

27.

Mm-s.br

Breccias and Conglomerates

Prof. Ilias formation : breccias and breccia-conglomerates consisting mainly of rubbles and cobbles deriving from dark-neogene limestones with calcitic cementing material.

Middle - upper Miocene ?

28.

Ts-Ji.br

Breccias and Dolomites

Breccias and porous dolomites : recrystallized breccias, of black to grey colour, with clastic particles of various size, massive to thick-bedded. In their lower members porous dolomites are intercalated, of red to whitish colour.

Rhaetian ? - Lias ?

29.

Ki-s

Breccias and Limestones

Monomict breccias and oolitic limestones ; with fragments of micritic limestones which include dark red siliceous nodules. Downwards they pass into thin-medium-bedded, micritic limestones of reddish colour, with siliceous nodules.

Dogger ? - Lower Senonian

30.

M.br

Carbonate breccias

Carbonate breccias: polymict, heterometric, well-cemented with calcite, pseudobedded, or in banks of various dimensions, carbonate breccias with Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary rubbles of Gavrovo-Tripolis zone

Lower Miocene

31.

Jm-Es.k1

Cherts

Chert intercalations occuring in the middle and lower members of the "Platy limestones".

Middle Jurassic - Eocene

32.

Jm-Es.k2

Cherts

Chert intercalations occuring in the top members of the "Platy limestones".

Middle Jurassic - Eocene

33.

Jo

Cherts

Cherts : red-brown seldom dark brown, made up  of thin alternating beds of radiolarites and shales with intercalations of red to blue-brown thin bedded limestones.

Jurassic

34.

J-Ki.h,k

Cherts-Limestones

Frequent alternations of blue, green, brown, red and black cher-beds.Thin intercalations of clayey-siliceous material locally occur in them,as well as thin-bedded to thick-bedded limestones.

Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous

35.

P-T4.sh

Clastic metasediments

Clastic metasediments: polychromatic, thin-bedded or massive metasandstones of various lithological composition and sorting, alternating rhythmically with schistose metapelites and polychromatic usually grey-black, sericitic, quartzose

Permian?Upper Carnian

36.

M4-5.cl

Clastic rocks

Prina comlex : clastic rocks

Up. Serravallian - Low.Tortonian

37.

K6-7.fl

Clastic sediments

Clastic sediments: of various colour and composition, thin-bedded limestones, marls, pelites, sandstones and polymict, heterometric breccia-conglomerates

Cenomanian-Turonian

38.

K6-7.fl

Clastic sediments

Clastic sediments: of various colour and composition, thin-bedded limestones, marls, pelites, sandstones and polymict, heterometric breccia-conglomerates

Cenomanian-Turonian

39.

Ts.fl

Clastic sediments

Clastic sediments: grey, greenish, bedded or massive and unsorted sandstones and slightly schistose pelites of the same colour

Upper Triassic

40.

H.cd

Coastal deposits

Coastal deposits: sands and gravels

Holocene

41.

M4-5.c

Conglomerates

Mythoi formation : conglomerates with sligthly rounded cobbles of red or grey colour.

Up. Serravallian - Low.Tortonian

42.

M4-5.c,m

Conglomerates

Males formation : relatively well sorted polymict conglomerates with well rounded elements alternating irregularly with sandstones calyey marls.

Up. Serravallian - Low.Tortonian

43.

M4-5.ol2

Conglomerates

Kalamavka formation : conglomerate channel fillings, gravelly siltstones or large olistoliths

Up. Serravallian - Low.Tortonian

44.

Mic

Conglomerates

Conglomerates : compact, with pebbles mainly of mesozoic limestoens, hornstones and crystalline rocks (schists, quartzites etc.), cemented by brownish yellow marly material.

Middle Miocene (Vindobonian)

45.

Mi-c1

Conglomerates

Offlap's compact conglomerate with lenticular intercalations of sand and marl

Miocene

46.

Mi-c2

Conglomerates

Onlap's compact conglomerate

Miocene

47.

Mm.br1

Conglomerates

"Topolia conglomerates": rubbles from Tripolis and Pindos zone formations, strongly consolidated with calcitic cement.

Serravallian

48.

Mm.br2

Conglomerates

"Lissos beds": cobbles and rubbles preneogene series consolidated with calcitic and marly cement. They occur in the SE part of the sheet.

Serravallian

49.

Pl-c1

Conglomerates

Offlap's conglomerate. Pebbles mainly of limestone.

Pliocene

50.

Pl-c2

Conglomerates

Conglomerate in the above marl. Pebbles mainly of limestone.

Pliocene

51.

Qdl

Conglomerates

Conglomerate : fluvial, consisting of sand and well rounded pebbles, cross-bedded with Clypeaster fragments.

Pleistocene

52.

T.c,st

Conglomerates and Sandstones

Conglomerates and sandstones: pebbles of granite, marly schists, limestones.

Triassic

53.

T4-5.qt,ph

Conglomerates-Phyllites

"Mana" formation : quartzitic conglomerates of violet color with thin phyllitic intercalations passing to platy quartzites upwards.Platy calc-phyllites prevail in the lower members with thin quartzite layers and an horizon of calcalkalin

Carnian-Norian

54.

al

Deposits

 

 

55.

c1-c2

Deposits

Terraces, mostly torrential, but sometimes of marine origin. Mainly in the valleys and in the outlets of gorges. The younger(c1) up to 1-2m and the older (c2) up to 4m.

Quaternary younger

56.

c3

Deposits

Terraces, mostly torrential, but sometimes of marine origin. Mainly in the valleys and in the outlets of gorges. The older up to 30-40m.

Quaternary younger

57.

cd

Deposits

Coastal deposits : sand and gravels.

Holocene

58.

cd,dn

Deposits

Coastal deposits : sand and gravels.

Holocene

59.

cs

Deposits

Talus cones

Holocene

60.

dl-bc

Deposits

Slope fan debris consolidated

Pleistocene (Diluvium)

61.

dl-c1

Deposits

Marrine terrace. Elevation 5-10m. Conglomerate

Pleistocene (Diluvium)

62.

dl-c2

Deposits

Fluviatil terrace. Elevation 3m Conglomerate. Pebbles mainly limestone

Pleistocene (Diluvium)

63.

dl-c3

Deposits

Fluvial terrace. Elevation 20-25m Torrential deposits of boulders, gravels and pebbles, red gray sands and other transported of various composition materials

Pleistocene (Diluvium)

64.

dl-c4

Deposits

Red formations of torrential origin consisting of sandy marls, clays, sandstones and conglomerates. They have a considerable thickness and reach up to a height of 350m and more.

Quaternary older

65.

dl-oe

Deposits

Aeolian deposits. Wind - blown sand

Pleistocene (Diluvium)

66.

dl-sc

Deposits

Fluviatil terrace. Elevation 3m Conglomerate. Pebbles mainly limestone

Pleistocene (Diluvium)

67.

dl-st

Deposits

Marrine terrace. Elevation 5-10m. Sandstone

Pleistocene (Diluvium)

68.

H.cd

Deposits

Sediments of the coastal area : beach sands, marine terraces.

Pleistocene - Holocene

69.

H.cd,dn

Deposits

Coastal deposits : sand and gravels.

Holocene

70.

H.cs,sc

Deposits

Talus cones and scree : angular pebbles mainly of carbonate composition and various size, mixed with terra rossa, loose and locally slightly consolidated

Holocene

71.

H.l,s

Deposits

Clayey-sandy deposits : with significant proportion of dispersed boulders and gravels, mainly of carbonate composition, terra-rossa with cobbles and rubbles, into small internal basins, and unconsolidated materials cinsisting of clay, sa

Holocene

72.

L.Mi

Deposits

Lacustrine deposits. Marl, clay, etc. Thin strata of Lignite are included.

Miocene

73.

L-Pl

Deposits

Lacustrine deposits. Marl, clay, sand.

Pliocene

74.

M.c

Deposits

Fluvio-terrestrial deposits : slightly consolidated red to red-brown conglomerates deriving from the phyllite-quartzite series.

Miocene

75.

M1

Deposits

Fluvio-terrestrial deposits - Conglomerates, coarse -fine -sandy breccias with intercalations of breccial limestones.

Miocene (upper Helvetian)

76.

M3.c

Deposits

Marine and fluvial deposits : conglomerates, sandstones, sands, marls, clays. In places lignites and limestones.

upper Miocene - Tortonian

77.

M3.k

Deposits

Marine and fluvial deposits : reefal or clastic limestones and sometimes conglomerates.

upper Miocene - Tortonian

78.

M4.l,st

Deposits

Skinias formation : generally well-bedded, dark blue, dark-grey or greenish, marine clays and silty clays, with brownish sandstone interbeds. Boundary with underlying Viannos formation arbitrarily drawn at the base of the lowermost marin

Upper Serravallian

79.

M5

Deposits

Finikia formation : Formations of sea and brackish water deposits. Marls, clays, sands, sandstones, conglomerates.

Lower - Middle Pliocene

80.

M5.c

Deposits

Marine and fluvial deposits : conglomerates, sandstones, sands, marls, clays.

Tortonian

81.

M5.c,st,m

Deposits

Ambelouzos formation : irregular alternations of marine, brackish and fluviatile conglomerates, brownish sands, siltstones and greyish, silty or sandy clays or marls.

Tortonian

82.

M5.st,m

Deposits

Ambelouzos formation : irregular alternations of marine, brackish and fluviatile conglomerates, brownish sands, siltstones and greyish, silty or sandy clays or marls.

Tortonian

83.

M6

Deposits

Ammoudares formation : bio-lithoclastic calcarenites and marls with abundant sponge spicules. In some sites, coarse-grained graben material occur with gravels at the base.

Lower Tortonian - Messinian

84.

M6.c

Deposits

Pantanassa formation : conglomerates, sandstones and sands, clays, lignites and lignites and limestones with mollusks.

Tortonian

85.

Mi

Deposits

Marine formations undivided. Marl, clay, sandstone, conglomerate

Miocene

86.

Mm.I

Deposits

 

 

87.

M-Pl

Deposits

Marine formations undivided. Marl, clay, sandstone, conglomerate

Pliocene

88.

Ng

Deposits

Marine and land deposits undivided : clays, limestones and conglomerate and breccial limestones.

Neogene

89.

Pl

Deposits

Marine deposits :upper members : white-grey marls including lamellar clayey-marly layers of grey to brown colour with macrofossils, intermediate members : marls and clayey-marly material of white to grey colour with small concretions,

Pliocene - Pleistocene

90.

Pl.Pt

Deposits

Marine deposites : white-grey marls, clayey-marly layers, macrofossils, clays of white and locally blue colour, marly-psammitic layers with Algae. They locally include limestone blocks of Miocene.

Pliocene - Pleistocene

91.

Pli

Deposits

Marine deposits : white and brownish marls, white marly limestones, sands, conglomerates and platy limestones.

Lower Pliocene

92.

Pl-Pt

Deposits

Marine deposits :upper members : white-grey marls including lamellar clayey-marly layers of grey to brown colour with macrofossils, intermediate members : marls and clayey-marly material of white to grey colour with small concretions,

Pliocene - Pleistocene

93

Pl-Pt.c

Deposits

Ag. Galini formation : predominantly fluviolacustrine, red conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones, silty clays

Middle Pliocene - Pleistocene

94.

Pl-Pt.c,s

Deposits

Ag.Galini formation : mainly fluvial and lacustrine red conglomerates, red and yellowish sands, siltstones and red-yellowish or grey silty clays with some marly limestone beds.

Upper Pliocene - Pleistocene ?

95.

Pt.c

Deposits

Fluvioterrestrial deposits : carbonate and phyllitic rubbles,of various size and lithologic composition, locally conglomerates alternating with sandstones , clays and loams.

Pleistocene

96.

Pt.sc

Deposits

Old scree : usually non mappable terrace remnants, occuring in the torrent beds and slopes of the large gorges. They consist mainly of various sized cobbles and rubbles unconsolidated to very consolidated, with clayey-marly or carbonate

Pleistocene

97.

Pt.sc,cs

Deposits

Old scree and talus cones : consisting of limestone conglomerates, with well-rounded pebbles, relatively cohesive and pseudo-bedded.

Pleistocene

98.

Pt.t

Deposits

Torrent terraces : usually non mappable terrace remnants, occuring in the torrent beds and slopes of the large gorges. They consist mainly of various sized cobbles and rubbles unconsolidated to very consolidated, with clayey-marly or car

Pleistocene

99.

Pt.tm

Deposits

Marine terraces : sandstones and conglomerates.

Pleistocene

100.

Pts.tu

Deposits

Marine terraces : consisting mainly of conglomerates in places with arenaceous marl intercalations.

Upper Pleistocene (Tyrrhenian)

 

101.

Q

Deposits

Fluvial-lacustrine red conglomerates, sands, siltstones and grey-yellowish clayey beds consisting mainly of reworked materials of the Ag.Galini formation.

Pleistocene - Holocene

102.

Q.c

Deposits

Red conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones and clays : in part residual or resedimented deposits of the Ag.Galini formation

Pleistocene - Holocene

103.

Q.cd

Deposits

Sediments of the coastal area : beach sands, marine terraces.

Pleistocene - Holocene

104.

Q.s

Deposits

Undivided marine terraces and coastal sands.

Pleistocene - Holocene

105.

Qal

Deposits

Recent beach deposits

Holocene

106.

Qal1

Deposits

Talus and scree : recent and older deposits of limestones and quartzite gravels and sands, at places poorly consolidated by sandy loam.

Holocene

107.

qf1

Deposits

Upper fluvial terraces : brown and red sands, reddish fluvial deposits

Pleistocene (Diluvium)

108.

qf2

Deposits

Middle fluvial terraces : pebbles and sands

Holocene

109.

qf3

Deposits

Fluvial deposits : gravels and sands

Holocene

110.

qm3

Deposits

Marine terraces : pebbles and sands

Holocene

111.

qm4

Deposits

Recent beach deposits : pebbles and sands

Holocene

112.

qm5

Deposits

Sediments of the coastal area : beach sands, marine terraces.

Holocene

113.

Qsc

Deposits

Scree and talus cones : deposits of small thickness. Usually loose or loosely connected by sandy loam.

Holocene

114.

Qt

Deposits

Older fluvial terrace : loose deposits of red brownish clays containing a great percentage of sand, granules and pebbles and sometimes boulders, deriving from limestones, hornstones and rarely from flysch sandstones.

Pleistocene

115.

qt1

Deposits

Younger fluvial terrace : gravels and sands. Loose deposits.

Holocene

116.

Qtm

Deposits

Older marine terrace : cohesive conglomerate with fine clay as cementing material.

Pleistocene

117.

Qtr

Deposits

Deposits of terra rossa in karstic hollows

Pleistocene

118

r

Deposits

Patch reefs with Corals, Algae and Hydrozoa present in the lower and middle parts of the Ambelouzos formation

Tortonian

119.

sc

Deposits

Slope debris and fans

Quaternary younger

120.

M

Deposits (?)

Conglomerates, marls, clays, organogenic limestones : they overlie unconformably the alpine formations and they are distinguished lithostratigraphically in three horizons.

upper Jurassic - up. Cretaceous

121.

M3

Deposits (?)

Brackish-lacustrine formations. Alternating layers of sands, marls, clays, conglomerates, as well as sapropels. They include lignite deposits and other plant remains.

Miocene - Sarmatian

122.

M6

Deposits (?)

Conglomerates, marls, clays, organogenic limestones : they overlie unconformably the alpine formations and they are distinguished lithostratigraphically in three horizons.

Miocene

123.

Mk

Deposits (?)

Biogenic limestones, marls, clays and conglomerates

Miocene

124.

Ps-Js?

Deposits (?)

Metasediments and metabasalts : metaradiolarites, black marbles.

Up. Permian - Up. Jurassic (?)

125.

δ

Diabases

Diabase

Ingeous rocks

126.

ϊ

Diabases

Diabase

Ingeous rocks

127.

η

Diorites

Diorite

Ingeous rocks

128.

C-Tm.d

Dolomites

Dolomites

Precarboniferous-Middle Triassic

129.

D

Dolomites

Dolomite

Permian or Carboniferous

130.

k?d

Dolomites

Dolomites: grey-black, thick-bedded, massive, brecciated, locally strongly weathered and karstic

Turonian

131.

TR.o-D

Dolomites

 

 

132.

Ts-Ji.d

Dolomites

Dolomites: white, grey, reddish, recrystallized, massive, partly thick-bedded and locally brecciated

Turonian

133.

Tm-s.d

Dolomites-limestones

Dolomites-limestones: consisting at their base of red-coloured, fine grained, platy, recrystallized limestones, passing to grey-white, grey-black, massive brecciated and recrystallized limestones and  dolomitic limestones

Middle Triassic?Norian

134.

dn

Dunes

sand dunes

Holocene

135.

ϋ

Dunes

sand dunes

Holocene

136.

Es-Ol.sch

Flysch

Transition beds towards the fllysch

Upper Eocene?-Lower Oligocene

137.

f?

Flysch

Flysch

Upper Jurassic

138.

fi

Flysch

Flysch of Tripolitza subzone. Shale, sandstone, conglomerate with lenticular intercalations of breccia texture limestone. Sometimes eruptive bodies are included.

Eocene - Oligocene

139.

fm

Flysch

Flysch melange

Pre-middle Miocene

140.

fm

Flysch

Flysch melange

Pre-middle Miocene

141.

fm

Flysch

Flysch melange

Pre-middle Miocene

142.

fm

Flysch

Flysch melange

Pre-middle Miocene

143.

fm

Flysch

Flysch melange

Pre-middle Miocene

144.

fm

Flysch

Flysch melange

Pre-middle Miocene

145.

fm

Flysch

Flysch melange

Pre-middle Miocene

146.

fo

Flysch

Flysch : psammito-peletic, folded, locally rich in olistoliths from limestones, radiolarites and basic, metamorphic rocks or not. Maximum thickness : 100m approximately.

Lower (?)-Middle-Upper Eocene

147.

fo1

Flysch

"First Flysch" : sandstones and psammitic limestones with fragments fo basic rocks. Maximum thickness : 50m approximately

Cenomanian - Turonian

148.

ft

Flysch

Flysch of Tripolitza subzone. Shale, sandstone, conglomerate with lenticular intercalations of breccia texture limestone. Sometimes eruptive bodies are included.

Eocene - Oligocene

149.

Js.f

Flysch

Flysch : sandstone blocks, breccial limestones.

upper Jurassic

150.

Js.fl

Flysch

Flysch series with limestone beds

Jurassic

151.

Js.fl2

Flysch

Metaflysch and ophiolithic olistroms.

Jurassic

152.

Js-ki.fl2

Flysch

Metaflysch and ophiolithic olistroms.

Jurassic

153.

K.fl

Flysch

"First Flysch" : thin alternating beds of red marls, cherts, marly limestones and clayey-marly schists.Locally green and red coarse-grained sandstones, alternating with microclastic limestones.

Cretaceous

154.

K7-8.fo

Flysch

First flysch : pelites grey to dark-green, coarse-grained, slightly metamorphic and sandstones broken into pieces. Olistoliths and small ophiolithic blocks occur.

Dogger ? - Lower Senonian

155.

gn

Gneiss

Gneiss

Up. Jurassic-Low. Cretaceous

156.

γ

Granites

Granite

Igneous rocks

157.

γ-η

Granites - Diorites

granite - diorite undivided

Igneous rocks

158.

bs

Greenrocks

Greenrocks : they consist of prasinites, glaucophane-prasinites and epidotites. Their texture is microcrystallo-lepidoblastic and their structure compact, parallely orientated, slightly schistose, strongly microfolded and slightly fractu

Mesozoic

159.

G

Gypsum

Gypsum-anhydrite deposits in the lower part of the phyllitic series

Permian - Triassic

160.

gy

Gypsum

Gypsum-anhydrite deposits in the lower part of the phyllitic series

Permian or Carboniferous

161.

M5-6.g

Gypsum

Gypsum or gypsum conglomerates

Upper Tortonian - Messinian

162.

R

Gypsum

Residue of undissolved gypsum materials

Permian - Triassic

163.

Fe

Iron ores

Iron ores - limonite

Triassic

164.

landslides

landslides

landslides

Holocene

165.

ls

Landslides

Rock falls and landslides

Holocene

166.

CP-k

Limestones

Average bedded, usually bluish crysalline limestone with flaggy intercalations or nodules of very fine grained chert.

Permian or carboniferous

167.

E.k

Limestones

dark grey, neritic, dolomitized limestones : bioclastic limestones of neritic facies, medium to thick-beddedof compact structure, black, grey to light-beige in colour.

Ypresian - Lower Priabonian

168.

e-D

Limestones

White dense limestone (Mangassa limestone). Lutenian. In the lower strata they become dolomitic ot they fall into typical, dense dolomite

Eocene

169.

e-k

Limestones

Grey, dark-gray or black, limestone with bituminous odour when crushed.

Eocene

170.

e-k1

Limestones

Gray or black limestone with a bitoumenous odour when crushed. In some places they include nodules of chert.

Eocene

171.

e-k2

Limestones

White dense limestone (Mangassa limestone).

Eocene

172.

H.sc,cs

Limestones

Scree and talus cones : consisting of limestone particles of various size, unconsolidated to slightly consolidated.

Holocene

173.

J.k

Limestones

Oolithic limestones and red limestones with radiolarites.

Jurassic

174.

Ji-Mk

Limestones

Limestones:grey-medium-bedded to massive and partly brecciated limestones, passing locally in their upper members to grey-black, thick-bedded, massive weathered and karstic dolomites. Fossils

Lias-Dogger

175.

J-k

Limestones

Blueblack to grayblack, dense thick-bedded limestone

Jurassic

176.

Jm-E.k

Limestones

"Platy limestones" : crystalline limestones and locally marbles, medium-crystalline, grey to black-grey, well-bedded in banks.

Middle Jurassic - Eocene

177.

Jm-E.ph

Limestones

"Platy limestones" : crystalline limestones and locally marbles, medium-crystalline, grey to black-grey, well-bedded in banks. In the the S.SE part of the sheet they pass upwards into green-yellow calcareous phyllites.

Middle Jurassic - Eocene

178.

Jm-E?k

Limestones

Limestone with cherts : dark-grey to whitish, medium-thick-bedded, recrystallized, in places slightly dolomitized and intensely folded. Locally, thin phyllite layers occur.

Dogger - Middle Eocene

179.

Jm-EMk

Limestones

Limestone with cherts : dark-grey to whitish, medium-thick-bedded, recrystallized, in places slightly dolomitized and intensely folded. Locally, thin phyllite layers occur.

Dogger - Middle Eocene

180.

Jm-Es.ph

Limestones

"Platy limestones" : crystalline limestones and locally marbles, medium to corse crystalline, grey to black-grey, well-beddd in banks, a few cm up to 1m thick.

Middle Jurassic - Eocene

181.

Js.k

Limestones

Dark-coloured breccial limestones

upper Jurassic

182.

Js.ki.k

Limestones

Breccial limestones with Pseudocyclammina

Upp. Jurassic - Low. Cretaceous

183.

Js-Es.k

Limestones

Platy limestones

Lower Cretaceous - Upper Eocene

184.

Js-k

Limestones

Dark-coloured breccial limestones

Upper Jurassic

185.

k

Limestones

metamorphic brecciated limestones

Mesozoic ?

186.

K.k

Limestones

Limestones : grey to black-grey, medium to thick-bedded to massive, bituminous, with rich neritic fauna. Maximum thickness : 300m approximately.

Cretaceous

187.

K?.k

Limestones

Limestones : grey, massive, locally recrystallized, dolomitized and ankeritized, of probable cretaceous age.

Cretaceous

188.

k1

Limestones

Flaggy limestones

Permian - Triassic

189.

K5-8.k

Limestones

Limestone series : crystalline limestones, of white colour, thin-bedded, with intermediate reddish beddings due to the presence of iron oxides, bioclastic and brecciated limestones with black silex and angular fragments of quartz, muscov

upp. Albian - Upp. Maastrichtian

190.

K6

Limestones

Limestones : red and white-greenish, laying under "first flysch" layers.

Up.Cretaceous-Cenomanian

191.

K6-7

Limestones

Limestones, cherts and "first flysch" : small occurance in the NW part of the sheet, not exceeding the 20m in thickness approximately.

Cenomanian - Turonian

192.

K7-8.k

Limestones

Limestones : whiteyellowish to white, sometimes breccial, laying over "first flysch" layers.

Up.Cretaceous - Cenomanian

193.

K8.k

Limestones

Limestones: polychromatic,platy, compact with silex lenses and dense net of calcite veins, strongly tectonized and multifolded

Senonian

194.

K8-9.k

Limestones

Clastic-bioclastic limestones : dark-coloured to grey, medium-to thick-bedded and locally massive, often passing to dolomitized limestones (deposits of clastic and bioclastic material in shallow sea).

Senonian - Maastrichtian

195.

K8-Ei.k

Limestones

Platy limestones

Up. Senonian - Paleocene

196.

K8-EMk

Limestones

Limestones:grey-medium-bedded to massive and partly brecciated limestones, passing locally in their upper members to grey-black, thick-bedded, massive weathered and karstic dolomites. Fossils

Upper Eocene - Oligocene

197.

K9.k

Limestones

Limestones : thin-medium bedded, white-grey to rose-grey, micritic, developing into microbrecciated, folded and tectonized. Maximum thickness : 250m approximately

Maastrichtian

198.

K9-Ei.k

Limestones

Platy limestones

Up. Senonian - Paleocene

199.

K-E.k

Limestones

Limestones : grey to black-grey, thick-bedded to massive, bituminous, in the upper members slightly dolomitic and locally microbrecciated with rich neritic fauna. Maximum thickness : 300m approximately.

Cretaceous - middle-upper Eocene

200.

K-EMk

Limestones

Limestones : grey to grey-black, medium-thick-bedded to massive, bituminous, locally dolomized, microbrecciated, in the upper members with rich neritic fauna.

Cretaceous - middle Eocene

201.

Kg-Pc.k

Limestones

Limestones : grey to grey-black, medium-thick-bedded to massive, bituminous, locally dolomized, microbrecciated, in the upper members with rich neritic fauna.

Upper Cretaceous - Paleocene

202.

Kr.o-k

Limestones

Dark-gray to black, rarely gray, thickly bedded limestone.

upper Cretaceous

203.

Kr.o-k1

Limestones

Coarse grained white limestone because of contact metamorphism by plutonic intrusions

Upper Cretaceous

204.

Ks

Limestones

Limestones : white grey to bluish-grey, compact, karstified, containing Rudits

Upper Cretaceous

205.

Ks.k

Limestones

Limestones : grey-black, medium-thick-bedded, bituminous and dolomitic limestones. (Clastic-biomicritic limestones)

Upper Cretaceous

206.

Ks-E.k

Limestones

Limestones : on the SW part of the sheet, thin to medium-bedded, white-grey to pink-grey, micritic, in the upper members microbrecciated, folded and tectonized.

Upper Cretaceous - Lower Eocene

207.

Ks-Ei.k

Limestones

Platy limestones : microbrecciated limestones, biomicritic limestones, pelagic bioclastic and biomicritic limestones, biomicrosparitic, recrystallized limestones

M.?-Up. Senonian - L.Eocene

208.

Ks-k

Limestones

Limestones : grey-black, medium-thick-bedded, bituminous and dolomitic limestones. (Clastic-biomicritic limestones)

Upper Cretaceous

209.

M1-k

Limestones

Limestones of breccial texture

Miocene (upper Helvetian)

210.

M4.k

Limestones

Ag. Varvara formation : bioclastic, partly breccious or conglomeratic limestones and reefal limestones

Uppermost Tortonian - Messinian

211.

M4-5.k

Limestones

"Parathyri" member of the Males formation : beds of stromatolithic limestones with Algae.

Up. Serravallian - Low.Tortonian

212.

M4-5.ol1

Limestones

Prina complex : dark-coloured pre-neogene limestones of the Tripolis zone and brecciated limestones

Up. Serravalian - Low.Tortonian

213.

M5-6.k

Limestones

Ag. Varvara formation : bioclastic, partly breccious or conglomeratic limestones and reefal limestones

Uppermost Tortonian - Messinian

214.

M6.k

Limestones

Limestones : reefal, clastic, in places conglomerate or breccial.

Messinian

215.

M7.k

Limestones

Pantanassa formation : conglomerates, sandstones and sands, clays, lignites and lignites and limestones with mollusks.

Upper Miocene - Messinian

216.

Mi-bk

Limestones

Limestone of breccia texture

Miocene

217.

Mi-ck

Limestones

White dense or crystalline coral limestone

Miocene

218.

Mik

Limestones

Marly limestones : compact white-yellow to white grey, including sea fossils.

Miocene

219.

Mi-m

Limestones

Marly limestones : compact, brownish to yellowish.

Miocene (Vindobonian)

220.

Mi-mk

Limestones

Marly limestones : compact, brownish to yellowish.

Miocene (Vindobonian)

221.

mk

Limestones

Limestones : light-coloured dolomitic limestones.

Mesozoic (????)

222.

Mm

Limestones

Limestones (marbles) : marbles, phyllites, dolomites, quartzites and conglomerates in alternating layers.

Mesozoic (????)

223.

Mu

Limestones

Limestones : white-grey to bluish, microcrystalline. Generally of mesozoic age, and in most cases jurassic (?)

Mesozoic

224.

Mz-Te.k

Limestones

Platy limestones : black crystallized with layers of white silex.

Mesozoic

225.

PC

Limestones

Platy limestones

Permian or Carboniferous

226.

Pc.Em,k

Limestones

Limestones : grey-black, medium-thick-bedded, with rich neritic fauna, locally dolomitic.

Paleocene - middle Eocene

227.

Pc.EMk

Limestones

Limestones : grey-black, medium-thick-bedded, with rich neritic fauna, locally dolomitic.

Paleocene - Middle Eocene

228.

Pc-E3.k

Limestones

Black limestones with rich neritic fauna

Paleocene - Middle Eocene

229.

Pc-EMk

Limestones

Limestones : grey-black, medium-thick-bedded, with rich neritic fauna, locally dolomitic.

Paleocene - middle Eocene

230.

Pc-Es.k

Limestones

Limestones : recrystallized, grey-black, medium-thick-bedded, locally dolomitic, in the upper members microbreccious, with rich neritic fauna. Maximum thickness : 200m approximately.

Paleocene-Base of Upper Eocene

231.

PCk

Limestones

Platy crystalline limestones : light grey to dark grey with thin phyllitic intercalations. Usually they are thin platy to thin bedded with nodules or thin layers of cherts, becoming sometimes, especially to their upper horizons, thick be

Permian or Carboniferous

232.

Pt.k

Limestones

Bioclastic limestones : whitish, massive, "grain packstones", consisting mainly of Foraminifera and Algae.

Tyrrhenian

233.

Pts.k

Limestones

Bioclastic limestones : whitish, massive, including mainly Foraminifera, Mollusks and Bryzoans. Locally they overlie pre-neogene rocks with angular uncorfomity.

Upper Pleistocene (Tyrrhenian)

234.

Pz-Mzk

Limestones

Limestones : compact, crystalline, white to white-brown, at places blackish, blue-brown, thin-plated, sometimes dolomitic or at places dolomites of the autochthonous system of Crete island, of undetermined age, Paleozoic or Mesozoic.

Paleozoic - Mesozoic (?)

235.

T.k1

Limestones

Lentas limestones : black or grey very crystallized, with some silex.

Triassic

236.

T.k2

Limestones

Micritic limestones

Triassic

237.

Tk-t

Limestones

Limestones of the Tripolis zones

Upper Cretaceous

238.

tmmk

Limestones

Grey to white coral limestones.

Upper Miocene

239.

tpk

Limestones

Limestones (Platanias formations) : reefal and in some parts marl limestones.

Pliocene

240.

TR-Kk

Limestones

Limestones : compact, ehite-grey to bluish, microcrystalline to aphanitic usually with rudist fragments, sometimes breccias, at places dolomitized, strongly karstified. They may include lower members of jurassic to triassic age, not prov

Triassic (?) - Cretaceous

241.

Ts.k

Limestones

Reddish limestones with jaspers

Up.Triassic - Low.Jurassic

242.

Ts-Ji.k

Limestones

Recrystallized limestones to marbles : reddish, with jaspers, in thin banks with more  or less red marl layers. Limestones, reddish or black with Halobies. Sandstones occur occasionally in thin banks, at the base of the formation.

Upper Triassic - Lower Jurassic

243.

Ts-k

Limestones

Reddish limestones with jaspers

Up. Triassic - Low. Jurassic

244.

Ttr-j

Limestones

Limestones

Triassic - Jurassic

245.

Tk-t

Limestones - Phyllites

Limestones and phyllites

Triassic

246.

Ts-ph

Limestones - Phyllites

Limestones and phyllites

Triassic

247.

E.k

Limestones and Dolomites

Black-grey limestones and dolomites

Paleocene - Priambonian

248.

J12.k,d

Limestones and Dolomites

Limestones and dolomites : light-grey to grey-black.

Upper Jurassic

249.

J-Ki.k,d

Limestones and Dolomites

Limestones and dolomites : light-grey to grey-black, medium-bedded to massive, karstic limestones. The dolomization decreases from base to top.

Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous

250.

Js-Ki.k,d

Limestones and Dolomites

Limestones and dolomites : dark-grey to grey, usually micritic, medium to thick-bedded. They pass upwards to cohesive breccias. Bedded dolomites of white colour occur locally in the limestones. Tectonic breccias of small thickness are fo

Upp. Jurassic - Low. Cretaceous

251.

Js-Ks.k

Limestones and Dolomites

Limestones and dolomites :dolomitized limestones of black-grey colour, medium-bedded, white to grey at their base, recrystallized and dolomitized, in places oolithic, in form of bands.

upper Jurassic - up. Cretaceous

252.

K.k,d

Limestones and Dolomites

Dolomites and dolomitic grey to black-grey limestones

Cretaceous

253.

k-D

Limestones and Dolomites

Dolomites and limestones

Triassic

254.

Kr.o-D

Limestones and Dolomites

Dark-gray to black, rarely gray, thickly bedded limestone. Sometimes they alternate with gray or dark gray dolomite

Upper Cretaceous

255.

Pc-E3-k,d

Limestones and Dolomites

Black-grey limestones and dolomites

Paleocene - Priambonian

256.

PC-k

Limestones and Dolomites

Dolomites and dolomitic limestones : of shallow sea. Their colour is white, white-grey, blue, locally dark coloured.

Middle Triassic - Lower Jurassic

257.

T.EMk,d

Limestones and Dolomites

Carbonate layers : limestones and dolomites.

Triassic (?) - Middle Eocene

258.

T6-Js.k,d

Limestones and Dolomites

Limestones and dolomites

upper Triassic - Upper Jurassic

259.

T-EMk,d

Limestones and Dolomites

Carbonate undivided layers : limestones and dolomites.

Triassic - Middle Eocene (?)

260.

Tk-D

Limestones and Dolomites

Limestones - Dolomites : dark-grey to black, sometimes white-grey, unbedded to thick bedded or well bedded. At some places they look like the platy crystalline ones, but without cherts. The dark coloured parts of the series are bituminou

Triassic

261.

Tm-s.d,k

Limestones and Dolomites

Dolomites, dolomitic limestones, limestones : grey to white thick-bedded to unbedded, they develop upgrades to dolomitic limestones locally brecciated.

Middle - Upper Triassic

262.

Ts.br

Limestones and Dolomites

Breccial limestones and dolomites

Upper Jurassic - Upper Eocene

263.

Ts-Ji.d

Limestones and Dolomites

Crystallized limestones and dolomites

Upper Triassic - Lias ?

264.

Ts-Ji.d,k

Limestones and Dolomites

Dolomites and dolomitic limestones : neritic recrystallized, undergone intense faulting tectonism. White to whitishwith cohesive breccias, they pass into black and grey limestones to dolomitic limestones.

Rhaetian - Lias

265.

Ts-Ji.d,kd

Limestones and Dolomites

Dolomites and dolomitic limestones : neritic recrystallized, undergone intense faulting tectonism. White to whitishwith cohesive breccias, they pass into black and grey limestones to dolomitic limestones.

Rhaetian - Lias

266.

Ts-Ji.mr,d

Limestones and Dolomites

Crystallized limestones to marbles, dolomites, dolomitic stones, rauhwackes and carbonate breccia-conglomerates : cellural dolomites with dolomitic powder, filling the cells, prevail in the lower members.

Upper Triassic - Lias

267.

Ts-JMk,d

Limestones and Dolomites

Dolomitized limestones - dolomites : intensely tectonized, locally broken into pieces, slightly folded, cavernous with goethite and bituminous.

Upper Triassic - Middle Jurassic

268.

Ts-Js.k,d

Limestones and Dolomites

Limestones, dolomitic limestones and dolomites : they constitute the base of the external zones tectonic nappe and lie usually on the phyllite-quartzite series. Lower members : semi-crystalline dolomites. Upper members : limestones and d

Upper Triassic

269.

Ts-k-D

Limestones and Dolomites

Massive limestones and dolomites, often of cellural texture, intercalating also phyllites.

Triassic

270.

Js-Es.k

Limestones with silex

Limestones with silex:dark-polychromatic, recrystallized, thin-medium-bedded and strongly folded limestones with silex

Upper Jurassic?-Upper Eocene

271.

Js-K6.k,d

Limestones-dolomites

Limestones-dolomites:The limestones are grey medium-thick bedded, massive karstic and locally brecciated.The dolomites are grey-black, thick-bedded, locally brecciated and karstic. They overlie transgressively the underlying dolomites

Lower?Malm-Cenomanian

272.

Ts.k,d

Limestones-Dolomites

Recrystallized limestones and dolomites : carbonate series of neritic sedimentation, strongly dolomitized in its lower members.

Upper Triassic

273.

Ts-Js.d,kd

Limestones-Dolomites

Dolomites, dolomitic limestones, limestones : grey to white thick-bedded to unbedded, they develop upgrades to dolomitic limestones locally brecciated.

Upper Triassic-Upper Jurassic

274.

Ts-ph

Limestones-Phyllites

Limestones and Phyllites

Middle Ladinian-Lower Carnian

275.

K9.k,st

Limestones-Sandstones

Transition beds : platy limestones alternating with sandstones and shales.They costitute the transition of uppercretaceous limestones to flysch.

Maastrichtian

276.

Ts.sch,k

Limestones-Schists-Quartzites

Variegated formation of schists, recrystallized limestones and quartzites. Locally intercalations occur of red-violet sericitic-calcitic plyllites.

Upper Triassic

277.

C-Tm.mr

Marbles

intercalations of marbles

Precarboniferous-Middle Triassic

278.

mr

Marbles

Marbles

Pre-middle miocene

279.

mr1

Marbles

Marbles

Pre-middle miocene

280.

mr2

Marbles

Marbles

Upper Triassic

281.

Mz.mr

Marbles

Coarse-crystalline marbles

Middle Jurassic - Eocene

282.

P-Ts.mr

Marbles

Vassilikos marbles : medium bedded and locally massive, grey to grey-white, medium-coarse-crystalline, shlightly dolomitized.

Permian - Upper Triassic

283.

T4-5.mr

Marbles

"Mana" formation : the middle members of the formation consisting of marbles compact, coarse-crystalline, white-grey. They occur related to gypsum.

Carnian-Norian

284.

M2

Marls

Marls, blue, greygreen whiteyellow, yellow, subwhite and marly limestones.

Tortonian

285.

M4.m

Marls

Marls

Upper Miocene - Messinian

286.

M4-5.m,k

Marls

Marly beds in the Clastic rock formation (Prina complex)

up. Serravallian - Low.Tortonian

287.

M6

Marls

White or yellowish marls of sandy texture.

Pliocene

288.

M6.m

Marls

Marls

Messinian

289.

Mim

Marls

Marls : yellow brown to white-yellow, often alternating with beds of marly sandstone and platy marly limestones, including fossils of sea molusks.

Miocene

290.

Mi-m

Marls

Marls : yellow brown to white-yellow, often alternating with beds of marly sandstone and platy marly limestones, including fossils of sea molusks.

Miocene

291.

Pl.m

Marls

Marls : mainly soft and less hard, yellow-whitish, with intercalations of clays and sands.

Pliocene

292.

Pli.m

Marls

Myrtos - Finikia formation : homogeneous and foliated fossiliferous marls

Lower Pliocene

293

Pl-m

Marls

White marls (of Koufonissi)

Pliocene

294.

Pl-ms

Marls

White or yellowish marls of sandy texture.

Pliocene

295.

tmm

Marls

Marls : grey to grey-green marls.

Upper Miocene

296.

tpm

Marls

Marls (Platanias formations) : brownwhitish soft marls with beds of limestone.

Pliocene

297.

tmc

Marls - Limestones

Marls and platy limestones : brown to greenish marls with beds of platy marl limestones.

Upper Miocene

298.

Mi-m

Marls and Conglomerates

White or gray marl, sometimes containing lenticular conglomerate intercalations

Miocene

299.

M5

Marls and Sands

Makrylia formation : alternations of fossiliferous marls and graded turbidite sands poorly lithified.

Lower Tortonian

300.

M4-5.m,st

Marls and Sandstones

Kalamavka formation : alternations of marls and calcitic sandstones

up. Serravallian - Low.Tortonian

301.

M5

Marls and Sandstones

"Makrila formation" : alterations of fossiliferous marls and graded sandstones.

Lower Tortonian - Messinian

302.

Pl-Pt

Marls, clays, siltstones

Marls, clays, siltstones, sands and breccio-conglomerates: white, brownish, medium -or thin-bedded marls, grey foliated or massive clays and siltstones

Plio-Pleistocene

303.

M2-3

Marls-Marly limestones

Brackish-lacustrine formations and marls and marly limestones unseparated.

Sarmatian - Tortonian

304.

M5-6.m

Marls-Marly limestones

Calcitic marls or marly limestones occasionally in local unconformity with the underlying formation.

Upper Tortonian - Messinian

305.

Mm-s.m,k

Marls-Marly limestones

Marls, marly limestones : deposits of fresh, mainly, brakish waters lying unconformably on preneogene formations. The lower members consist of white-grey clastic, usually biogenic, mainly limestones, well-bedded on banks. Lignite horizon

Middle - Upper Miocene

306.

Pl-mk

Marls-Marly limestones

Marls - marly limestones : thin to medium-bedded, white-yellow, homogeneous with locally travertinoid structure.

Pliocene

307.

tmg

Marls-Marly limestones

Galatas formation : brown to greenish marls with beds of marl limestones.

Upper Miocene

308.

P-T?.ph

Metamorphic rocks

Rock unit of low metamorphism : overtrrust together with the tectonically overlying Tripolis series. In this unit are attributed the plyllites, quartzites and shales, intercalated within the "platy limestones".

Cretaceous

309.

P-Ts.ph

Metamorphic rocks

Rock unit of low metamorphism : overtrrust together with the tectonically overlying Tripolis series. In this unit are attributed the plyllites, quartzites and seritic schists, intercalated within the "platy limestones".

Permian - Triassic

310.

C-Tm.sh

Metamorphic series

Metamorphic, volcano-sedimentary series

Precarboniferous-Middle Triassic

311.

C-ph-D-k

Mixed

Dolomites, limestones, quartz sandstones and shales

Carboniferous

312.

J-k8

Mixed

Limestones, radiolarites and "first flysch"

Turonian - Senonian

313.

K8

Mixed

Marly limestones, sandstones and conglomerates.

Upper Senonian

314.

K8-9

Mixed

Pelites and red marly limestones containing angular block of diabases.

Upper Cretaceous

315.

Mm.m,l,s

Mixed

Neogenic formations consisting of a lower series of clays and marls of grey-green colour, a marly horizon and finally an upper series of marls of yellow-white colour, calcitic sandstones, biocalcarenites and biosparites with clastic quar

Middle Miocene

316.

P-Ts

Mixed

Phyllites, quartzose meta-sandstones and mica-carbonaceous schists prevail, crossed locally by coarse-crystalline quartz veins up to 10cm thick.

Permian - Upper Triassic

317.

T4.fl

Mixed

Clastic series : alternations of sandstones in thin banks with fragments of vegetal remnants and dark grey marls with filaments. Locally bands of light grey  limestones occur with yellow coating, including Conodonts.

Carnian

318

T4-5

Mixed

Ravdoucha formation : marly limestone with metamorphism, containing pellites, quartzites and breccila limestones and dolomites.

Upper Triassic

319.

T4-fl

Mixed

Clastic series : alternations of sandstones in thin banks with fragments of vegetal remnants and dark grey marls with filaments. Locally bands of light grey  limestones occur with yellow coating, including Conodonts.

Carnian

320.

T-K7

Mixed

Reddish limestones with jaspers, radiolarites and "first flysch".

Up. Triassic - Low. Senonian

321.

T-K8

Mixed

Reddish limestones with jaspers, radiolarites and "first flysch".

Up. Triassic - Low. Senonian

322.

Ts.fl

Mixed

Clastic series : alternations of sandstones in thin banks with fragments of vegetal remnants and dark grey marls with filaments. Locally bands of light grey  limestones occur with yellow coating, including Conodonts.

Upper Triassic

323.

ol

Olistoliths

Olistoliths : locally occur, mainly of limestones, radiolarites and basic eruptive rocks, metamorphic or not.

Paleocene - Eocene

324.

ol1

Olistoliths

Olistoliths : locally occur, mainly of limestones, radiolarites and basic eruptive rocks, metamorphic or not. In layers of flysch.

Paleocene - Eocene

325.

ol2

Olistoliths

Olistoliths : locally occur, mainly of limestones. In layers of flysch.

Upper Eocene - Oligocene

326.

Js-ki.fl2

Ophiolites

Ophiolitic complex

Upp. Jurassic - Low. Cretaceous

327.

o

Ophiolites

Ophiolites : of serpentinites, peridotites, diabases, diorites and amphibolites accompanied by red marly limestones of Mastrichtian age, in places.

Pre-middle Miocene

328.

ophro

Ophiolites

Ophiolitic rocks : ultrabasic and basic rocks, pseudoconglomerates, consisting of peridotites locally serpentinized, gabbros and diorites.

Lower Cretaceous ? - Cenomanian

329.

π,θ

Ophiolithic complex

Ophiolithic complex: peridotites, pyroxenites, usually serpentinized and slightly metamorphic diabasic rocks

 

330.

b

Orthorocks

Metabasalts and metatuffs

Upper Triassic

331.

ortho

Orthorocks

Orthorocks : Metabasalts and metagabbros.

Mid. Carboniferrous - Up. Triass

332.

ϋ

Orthorocks

Orthorocks : Metabasalts and metagabbros.

Mid. Carboniferrous - Up. Triass

333.

Th-J.k

Pantokratora limestones

Pantokratora limestones: grey-white, fine to coarse grained, recrystallized, thick-bedded, massive and karstic limestones

Rhaetian-Lias?

334.

Cm-Ts.ph

Pararocks

Pararocks : Schists (mica, mica-chlorite, chloritoid-muscovite, quartzitic with sericite and hematite, carbonaceous-micaceous, graphite-mica), phyllites (mainly carbonaceous-chloritoid) and quartzites.

Mid.Carboniferous-Up.Triassic

335.

π

Peridotites

peridotite

Igneous rocks

336.

Ώ

Peridotites

peridotite

Igneous rocks

337.

ph

Phyllites

Phyllites : graphitic, seritic, chrolitic, sometimes haematitic.

Triassic

338.

PT-ph

Phyllites

Dark-grey greenish or maroon, mainly sericite phyllite in various grade of epizone metamorphosis.

Permian - Triassic

339.

PT-ph + C

Phyllites

Dark-grey greenish or maroon, mainly sericite phyllite in various grade of epizone metamorphosis, containing intercalations of sandstone and conglomerate.

Permian - Triassic

340.

PT-ph + q

Phyllites

Dark-grey greenish or maroon, mainly sericite phyllite in various grade of epizone metamorphosis, containing quartzite conglomerate and dark coloured thin-bedded crystalline limestone

Permian - Triassic

341.

PT-ph-c

Phyllites

Dark-grey greenish or maroon, mainly sericite phyllite in various grade of epizone metamorphosis, containing intercalations of sandstone and conglomerate.

Permian - Triassic

342.

Cs-Ti.ph

Phyllites-Marbles-Quartzites

"Sfinari" formation : a sequence of alternating green phyllites, thin-platy marbles and detached thin quartzite banks

Upper Carboniferous - Upper Skyt

343.

Ts-Jm..k

Platy limestones

Platy limestones: polychromatic, fine-,medium-, to coarse-graines,sublithographic, marly and locally brecciated with silex

Upper Triassic?-Dogger

344.

Ts-JMk

Platy limestones

Platy limestones: polychromatic, fine-,medium-, to coarse-graines,sublithographic, marly and locally brecciated with silex

Upper Triassic?-Dogger

345.

πρ

Porphyrites

Porphyrite

Up. Jurassic - Low. Cretaceous

346.

q

Quartzites

quartzites

Triassic

347.

T3-4.qt

Quartzites

"Agios Dikeos" quartzites

Middle Ladinian-Lower Carnian

348.

T4-5.qt

Quartzites

"Koutrouli" quartzites

Carnian-Norian

349.

Mg

Quartzites - Phyllites

Layers of quartzite alternating with phyllites and graphitic phyllites.

Mesozoic (????)

350.

Mq

Quartzites - Phyllites

Layers of quartzite alternating with phyllites.

Mesozoic (????)

351.

J.ks

Radiolarites

Radiolarites and "first flysch"

Jurassic - Lower Senonian

352.

Rw

Rauhwackes

Rauhwackes of different sizes and irregular shapes with thin to thick bedded or even unbedded, mostly crystalline, limestones and sometimes interbedded phyllites.

Triassic

353.

Rw

Rauhwackes

Rauhwackes of different sizes and irregular shapes with thin to thick bedded or even unbedded, mostly crystalline, limestones and sometimes interbedded phyllites.

Triassic

354.

M5.r

Reef fragments

Reef fragments

Tortonian

355.

s

Sands

Coastal sands

Holocene

356.

Mi-ms

Sandstones

Yellowish marly sandstone

Miocene

357.

Mi-st

Sandstones

Sandstone, loose of weak cohesion in some places

Miocene

358.

Es-Oi.sch

Schists

Metaflysch (Croussona beds) : carbonate schists, green, grey-green to dark-red, which have undergone very low degree metamorphism. Micro-medium crystalline texture and compact parallelly oriented. Main mineralogical constituents : malcit

Upper Eocene - Lower Oligocene

359.

fi

Schists

Kroussonas formation : green and red schists with some layers of marble.Kroussonas formation : green and red schists with some layers of marble.

Upper Eocene - Lower Oligocene

360.

Ji-m.sch

Schists

Schists siliceous-carbonate-argillaceous :small occurances, thin-medium-bedded, of yellowish to light brown colour, locally with characteristic porous surface. Undergone a slight local metamorphism. The siliceous material is mainly chalc

Lias ? - Dogger ?

361.

Js-ki.fl1

Schists

Vatos schists : Grey marls and beds of sandstone limestones, sometimes with conglomerates and quartzites.

Upp. Jurassic - Low.Cretaceous

362.

Ki-s.sch

Schists

Schists : similar to the mesozoic schists of the pelagonian nappe differing only in glaucophane which is absent here. They are of various colour, they have undergone low degree metamorphism and are traversed by quartz veins.

Lower Cretaceous ? - Cenomanian

363.

Mz.sch

Schists

Carbonate-quartoze schists

Middle Jurassic - Eocene

364.

PCsh

Schists

Crystalline schists : shining mica schists, or graphitic chloritic phyllites.

Mesozoic

365.

Pz-Mzsh

Schists

Crystalline schists : of the autochthonous system of Crete island (phyllites, muscovitic, graphitic, seritic, quartzitic, chloritic and lustrus schists), at places include platy black limestones.

Paleozoic - Mesozoic (?)

366.

Pz-Mzsh

Schists

Crystalline schists : of the autochthonous system of Crete island (phyllites, muscovitic, graphitic, seritic, quartzitic, chloritic and lustrus schists), at places include platy black limestones.

Paleozoic - Mesozoic (?)

367.

sch

Schists

Schists : argillaceous, micaceous, hydromicaceous, cliritic, quartose with phyllite intercalations.

Mesozoic

368.

T3-4.sch

schists

"Stavros-Selli" schists: variegated formation consisting of lowsonitic schists, quartzites and platy marbles. Gypsum intercalations occur in dolomites and rahwackes of considerable thickness.

Middle Ladinian-Lower Carnian

369.

Mt

Schists and Limestones

Clay schists and limestone terraces : darkcoloured clayey schists with black platy limestones and beds of quartzites

Miocene (????)

370.

Cs-Ti.sch

Schists-Quartzites-Marbles

"Mixed formation" : variegated formation consisting of chloritoid schists, quartzites and platy marbles

Upper Carboniferous - Upper Skyt

371.

H.sc,cs

Scree and talus cones

Scree and talus cones

Holocene

372.

Tm-s.sc

Shales

Shales : schists of very low metamorphic grade and yellowish, red-violet or greenish colour. They display lepidoblastic texture and parallel structure.

Ladinian - Carnian

373.

Tm-s.sch

Shales

Shales : schists of very low metamorphic grade and yellowish, red-violet or greenish colour. They display lepidoblastic texture and parallel structure.

Ladinian - Carnian

374.

Tm-s.sh

Shales

Shales (Ravdoucha) : yellowish to red-violet, of low degree metamorphism with lepidoblastic texture and parallel and schistoid structure. Main mineralogical constituents : sericite, chlorite, quartz and feldspars.

M.-U.Triassic (Ladinian-Carnian)

375.

H.el

Terra rossa, elluvial mantle

Terra rossa and elluvial mantle

Holocene

376.

vol

Volcanic

Volcanic Rocks : occuring locally in limited extend and small thickness, in tectonic contact with the lower members of the polychromatic cherts.They are pumiceous pillow lavas,of balsatic to andesitic composition,intensely altered and im

Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous






2. Western Art during the Venetian Period
General Information
WESTERN ART DURING THE VENETIAN PERIOD

The Database on the Western Art of the island of Crete during the Venetian period is available only in Greek.






3. The Ottoman Centuries
General Information
Settlements
Ottoman Monuments
Islamic Tombstones
Catalogue of the Ottoman Archival of the Historical Archive of Crete in Chania
Bibliography
A Database of Cultural Information on Crete during the Ottoman Centuries

In the middle of the seventeenth century, after a long war (1645-1669), Venetian Crete became an Ottoman island. The Ottoman conquest caused a series of changes in the economy, social organization and cultural identity of the island. An important factor for these changes was the fact that a significant Muslim community developed on the island during the Ottoman period, through conversion to Islam. Thus, a new cultural tradition was added to the already culturally complex identity of the island, that of Ottoman Islam. The aim of this database of cultural information is to highlight certain aspects of this tradition, which was lost after the departure of the Muslims from the island following the Exchange of Populations in 1924, but continues today to be a cultural reserve for Crete. The current databases are based on the systematic collection of bibliographical information by the Programme of Turkish Studies of the Institute of Mediterranean Studies, established in 1987, its aim being to study the history of the Ottoman Empire. Please note that the databases presented here are constantly being built up, renewed and revised. Therefore, visitors' remarks are not only welcome, but indispensable for further developing the project!

The first database contains information on the settlements in Crete during the Ottoman period, i.e., the cities, villages and metochia in the countryside of the island, which are still inhabited or abandoned. The main aim for the creation of this database was to locate the distribution of the Christian Orthodox and Muslim population on the island during the Ottoman period. Especially, we collected information on conversions to Islam, since it is well known that it was mainly through conversions that the Muslim community of the island was created. Moreover, we collected information on conversion of Cretan Muslims to Christianity during the nineteenth century.

The user can search for information through multiple criteria:

  • the type of settlement (city, village, or metochi)
  • the name, in case the user looks for a particular settlement, or, more generally, the group of settlements that belong to the modern prefectures, provinces and municipalities
  • the altitude
  • the antiquity of a settlement (the user can search for settlements which have existed before the Ottoman period, as well as for settlements that were founded during the Ottoman centuries)
  • the continuity or discontinuity of a settlement until the present day (in this case, the user can search for abandoned settlements during the centuries of Ottoman rule in Crete)
  • the population data which are recorded from various years (in this case, the user can ask for special totals for the data he has selected)
  • the religious identity of the inhabitants (Christian Orthodox villages, Muslim villages, mixed villages)
  • the evidence we possess on conversions to Islam or Christianity (or both).

The results include a series of information on each settlement: its name (older and modern), administration, altitude. Then follows the information concerning the Ottoman centuries (if we have any), its tax status, the religion of its inhabitants, its earliest mention, its abandonment (if it had been an abandonment), the evidence we have concerning conversions to Islam or Christianity, and the population data we have collected. Finally, it is noted whether the settlement is still inhabited or has been abandoned. Every entry includes the bibliography that our research group used for collecting the abovementioned information.

The settlements which we had been able to identify, through the help of the maps of the Greek Army Geographical Service, have been located in a digital map of Crete, through the use of G.I.S.

Research Group: Elias Kolovos (head), Yorgos Vidras, Dimitris Kakos, Panagiotis Krokidas, Konstantinos Konstantas, Stephanos Poulios, Katerina Stathi. Database design: Michalis Papazoglou, Giorgos Papadakis.

The user may also search, in a special database, for historical information concerning the Ottoman monuments in Crete. By this we mean the existing or non-existing remnants (new structures, or older ones reused by the Ottomans) of the cultural presence of the Ottoman administration and the Muslims in Crete during the Ottoman centuries. The main aim for the creation of this database was to collect information on these relatively unknown traces of the cultural presence of the Ottoman administration and Ottoman Islam in Crete, in order to facilitate the study of their historical typology. Since, after the Ottoman conquest, a fundamental aim of the new rulers in Crete was to "Ottomanize" the urban and rural space, in many cases the early Ottoman monuments were established through the transformation of older Venetian monuments, e.g., churches were transformed to mosques. Today, after the departure of the Muslims, these buildings, in case they are still standing, are testimonies to the existence of different religions and cultures in the Cretan history. On the other hand, in the case of the Ottoman monuments of the period of Reforms (Tanzimat) and the reign of Sultan Abdulhamit II, which were constructed in the context of the modernization and westernization of the Ottoman Empire, several are still used more or less in a similar way until today. So, we created entries for each building that we found in the bibliography or in situ today, including a brief account of their history, with a special emphasis on their use, in order to facilitate further research on them.

The user can search for information through multiple criteria:

  • the type of the building, e. g., mosque, mescit (smaller mosque), etc.
  • their location in cities, villages or in the boundaries of today's prefectures, as well as their names during the Ottoman centuries and today
  • the date of their construction, whether they are older constructions of the Venetian centuries, which were used in a different way by the Ottomans, or buildings of the Ottoman period.
  • their present condition (extant or not standing)

The results include a series of information for each entry: the name/s of the monument (older and modern), its location, the date of its construction, as well as the historical information we have collected. Every entry includes the bibliography that our research group used for collecting the above mentioned information. The monuments which we have been able to identify have been located in digital maps of Herakleio, Chania and Rethymno, through the use of G.I.S.

Research Group: Elias Kolovos (head), Marina Demetriadou, Dimitris Kakos, Eleni Kanetaki, Panagiotis Krokidas, Konstantinos Konstantas, Stephanos Poulios, Katerina Stathi. Photographs: Efi Moraitaki. Database design: Michalis Papazoglou, Giorgos Papadakis.

Special thanks to: Agesilaos Kaloutsakis, Giorgos Leledakis, Manolis Manousakas, Liana Starida, Nikolas Stavroulakis, Charis Papadakis.

A special database includes the results of the Project for Recording and Studying the Islamic Tombstones of Ottoman Rethymno.

The database includes information concerning the surviving Islamic tombstones which decorated the tombs of the Muslim population of Ottoman Rethymno. The tombstones are dated from the late seventeenth century until 1900. The database includes information on the tombstones as artefacts, as well as transliteration of their inscriptions in the Latin script.

Research group: Antonis Anastasopoulos (head), Marilena Bali, Foteini Chaireti, Eirini Kalogeropoulou, Marianna Liaskou, Katerina Limnidi, Marinos Sariyannis, Niki Spanou, Maria Tzoulaki, Maria Varoucha, Thanassis Vionis, Karmen Vourvachaki, Zois Xanthopoulos. Photographs: Efi Moraitaki.

The project is carried out with the cooperation of the 28th Ephorate of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Antiquities.

A special database, which can be useful to users with a special research interests, was created to include the catalogue of the Ottoman archival material preserved in the Historical Archive of Crete in Chania. The archive includes Ottoman, Greek, or bilingual registers and documents, dated mostly from the second half of the nineteenth century. The classification of the Ottoman archival material was the result of an older research project of the Programme of Turkish Studies of the Institute of Mediterranean Studies, in cooperation with the Historical Archive of Crete, aiming at the facilitation of research on these important sources for the history of Crete. In the course of the project, 3,500 registers were classified and an entry was created for each of them. The user can easily access information through the use of this database, which is available only in Greek.

Scholarly Supervision: Vassilis Demetriades

Research group: Gulsun Aksoy-Ayvali, Aggeliki Vlachopoulou, Irini Renieri, Chrysoula Christodoulara.

The project was funded by the Sub-project 1 of EPET II and carried out by the Institute of Mediterranean Studies, FORTH, in collaboration with the Historical Archive of Crete - Chania.

Finally, the user can search, in a special database, for the bibliographical data of the studies used until now by our research team in order to create the above mentioned databases. This database is being regularly updated.






4. Modern Times
General Information
Notaries Acts
Professional Catalogues
Refugees Exchanges
Bibliography
GENERAL INFORMATION

The Database on the Crete during the Modern Times is available only in Greek.

NOTARIES ACTS

Electronic form records the index of three notaries of city of Rethimno and the province Mylopotamoy of prefecture Rethimno. It is concretely for their: Pertef Dervisakis, notary Rethimno (index A: 1914-1917, index B: 1917-1920, in total 2950 action of) ' Ioannis D. Njkolakakis, notary of province Mylopotamoy Rethymnis (index A: 1883-1884, index V1: 1894-1896, index V2: 1885-1910, in total 1879 action) 'Tzortzis Sjganos', notary Rethimno (index A: 1879-1881, 63 action)' Emmanouhl  Koyskoymvekaki, notary Rethimno (index A: 1881-1882, 126 action).

This indexes, that oscillate between years 1879-1920, they contain, apart from the chronology and the number of each act, elements contracting (full name, profession, residence), name and extensive usually summary of each notarial action, rights/dues and signatures. The wealth of action and the variety of information that is drawn with words keys from the summaries, they allow a first knowledge for basic parameters of social life: economic relations, constitution of fortunes, familial strategies, social differentiation, and attitudes opposite in the life and the death, and other.

The files of notaries constitute, at general consent, one of the more basic sources for the study of concrete society. Because the big volume of action functions many times prohibitory for the researchers, the computerization of indexes facilitates the user in a first access in the material, for him it provides the possibility of attempting supported the summaries his first affairs and him it facilitates, if it wants it advances more his research, locate him the documents of notaries

PROFESSIONAL CATALOGUES

In electronic base of data are recorded elements for the cities of Crete that are contained in the professional catalogues of G. Jgglesi of years 1911 and 1920.  The construction of database was followed the logic of source: the presentation becomes with discrimination of professional sectors and the recording of personal elements of each professional. Hence, give in the user multiple possibilities of searches with choices and combination of elements. Could somebody access the material with base the city, the year, the professional sector, the sex or the religion of professionals. The user with his import in the base finds itself in the environment "Search" and selecting the field or the fields of base that he wants, it can or use the choices that for him are provided or advances the himself in his.

This source, despite the restrictions that from her nature it has (was drawn up in order to provides information in common professionals or wider consuming common), it provides a first picture of professional structure of each city, who can function additionally to other sources of more total character, as they are municipal rolls, the inventories and the electoral lists. Without fail however it sketches out tendencies as for the professional and social structure of cities of Crete. The registration, moreover, information from two different drivers that abstain temporally 10 roughly years, it gives the occasion of comparisons and search of changes, quantitative and qualitative. The database contain   advertise professional activities.

REFUGEES EXCHANGES

Recording Electronic of bulletins where it drew up the "Committee of Re-establishment of Refugees" (EAP) of the prefecture of Rethymno. It is included elements for the fortunes of residents of region that abandoned the island in the frame of exchange of populations, who followed the Mikrasiatiki Disaster. Simultaneously, is recorded the distribution of fortunes in the refugees and in the local population. We're maintained the structure and the text of bulletins of EAP. They were still maintained, in angular symbols (< >), and all elements had been erased in this bulletins. Because the analytic nature of base, that allocates extensive fields with a lot of information, was developed as for the search himself the information of fields and became thus limited use of words of keys.

With base the rich elements that the base contains it is possible are determined the type and the form of real estates, their value, their integration in the space, the altered householders. It is presented a department of city at decades 1930-1940 and simultaneously is thus drawn important information on the economic and social stratification before and afterwards the exchange.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

In electronic base of data are recorded books, articles in periodically or in collective volumes as well as any other form it is reported in Crete and more specifically in her cities, moreover relative unpublished postgraduate and doctoral work. In each entry it is quoted, depending on the form and the existing elements, the writer or the commissary, the title, the volume, the editor, the place and the chronology of publication, the pages, the space of localization, the size, thematic in that it can include itself, the description with words keys that they refer in the content of the bibliography work. They were recorded mainly articles in Cretan magazines and in relative with Crete collective publications, what exceed numerically at very the self-existent publications and they are usually more accessible. For the configuration of the most completed picture 19th and 20th century was considered essential the recording of also work that concerns in a more general history of Crete.


In the entries that resulted (they exceed 1000) are appeared particularly the big cities (Heraklion, Chania, Rethymno) and their around regions. Also result big thematic units for the Cretan revolutions, the Battle of Crete, for tours, memoirs, etc.   However, with the words keys and between them combination is possible the search of various subjects of policy, economy, social and cultural history. Generally the bibliographic base recommends precious driver on the study of history of Crete and particularly her cities.

More information here.




5. Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος
Έργα του Δομήνικου Θεοτοκόπουλου
Βιβλιογραφία
Έργα του Δομήνικου Θεοτοκόπουλου

Στο κέντρο «Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος» έχουν δημιουργηθεί μια φωτοθήκη και μια τράπεζα δεδομένων για τη μελέτη και κατάταξη του έργου του καλλιτέχνη (α. αυθεντικά έργα, β. έργα εργαστηρίου, γ. έργα που αποδίδονται σ' αυτόν). Έχουν συγκεντρωθεί σε ηλεκτρονική μορφή και παρουσιάζονται οι απόψεις 8 μελετητών του έργου του Γκρέκο (Manuel Bartolome Cossio, August L. Mayer, Maurice Legendre, Harold E. Wethey, Tiziana Frati, Jose Camon Aznar (ed. 1970), Jose Gudiol, Jose Manuel Pita Andrade), όπως τις βρίσκουμε στις σχετικές μονογραφίες τους. Χάρη στο ερευνητικό πρόγραμμα «Ψηφιακή Κρήτη», έγινε δυνατή η ψηφιοποίηση όλου του φωτογραφικού υλικού και η ηλεκτρονική τεκμηρίωση των έργων του Θεοτοκόπουλου, καθώς και των σχολίων των μελετητών του σε μια ενιαία βάση δεδομένων, όπου κανείς μπορεί να αναζητήσει σε διάφορα πεδία πληροφορίες για τα έργα του καλλιτέχνη, καθώς και για το υλικό που διαθέτει το Κέντρο (βλ. το σχετικό υπόδειγμα μιας ολοκληρωμένης εγγραφής που δίδεται παρακάτω).

Βιβλιογραφία

Σύμφωνα με το στόχο του Κέντρου «Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος» να καταρτιστεί ένας κατάλογος με την πληρέστερη δυνατή διεθνή βιβλιογραφία που να αφορά τον Γκρέκο, καταχωρούνται σε ηλεκτρονική μορφή οι υπάρχουσες αναφορές. Το φιλόδοξο αυτό έργο χρειάζεται πολλά χρόνια και μια μεγάλη ομάδα συνεργατών για να ολοκληρωθεί. Τα λάθη που εντοπίζονται σε πάρα πολλές δημοσιεύσεις, μας υποχρεώνουν να προχωρήσουμε σε προσωπική αυτοψία.
Στη βιβλιογραφία καταγράφεται κάθε αναφορά στον Δομήνικο Θεοτοκόπουλο σε κάθε είδους έντυπο, από το 1614, έτος του θανάτου του, έως τις 31 Δεκεμβρίου 1899. Από την 1η Ιανουαρίου 1900 μέχρι τις 31 Δεκεμβρίου 1999 καταγράφονται μόνο κείμενα που έχουν αφιερωθεί σ' αυτόν και στο έργο του. Για πρακτικούς λόγους έχουμε συμβουλευτεί έντυπα γραμμένα στα ελληνικά, ισπανικά, αγγλικά, γαλλικά, γερμανικά και ιταλικά. Για τις υπόλοιπες γλώσσες δεν έχει γίνει ειδική έρευνα, αλλά δεν έχουν αποκλειστεί όσες πληροφορίες προκύπτουν κατά τη διάρκεια της αναζήτησης που διεξάγουμε.
Συγκεκριμένα:
Αποδελτιώνονται ξενόγλωσσα και ελληνόγλωσσα βιβλία, άρθρα περιοδικών, καταλόγων και πρακτικών συνεδρίων από:
-Τη Βιβλιοθήκη του Ινστιτούτου Μεσογειακών Σπουδών (Ρέθυμνο).
-Τη Βιβλιοθήκη του Πανεπιστημίου Κρήτης (Ρέθυμνο).
-Την Εθνική Βιβλιοθήκη της Γαλλίας (Παρίσι).
-Τη βιβλιοθήκη του καθηγητή Νίκου Χατζηνικολάου.
Επίσης, καταχωρούνται εγγραφές με λήμματα που αναφέρονται στον Γκρέκο από ιστοσελίδες του Ίντερνετ και οι οποίες κάποια στιγμή θα ελεγχούν.

Πέρα από τις καταχωρήσεις των βιβλίων αναλυτικά έχουν αποδελτιωθεί τα εξής:

 

-Περιοδικά*

*Σε πολλά περιοδικά, όταν τα συμβουλευτήκαμε, έλειπαν ενδιάμεσα τεύχη ή και ολόκληροι τόμοι, γι' αυτό σπάνια μιλάμε για απόλυτα πλήρεις σειρές. Συνεπώς, ο κατάλογος των ήδη αποδελτιωμένων περιοδικών συνεχίζει να εμπλουτίζεται. Από τις πολλές δεκάδες περιοδικών που συμβουλευθήκαμε, παραθέτουμε μόνο τους τίτλους των περιοδικών εκείνων στα οποία βρέθηκαν αναφορές στον καλλιτέχνη (έντυπα μέχρι τις 31.12.1899), και άρθρα εξολοκλήρου αφιερωμένα στη ζωή και το έργο του Δομήνικου Θεοτοκόπουλου.

 

- Ξενόγλωσσα

Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Esteticas
Apollo
Archivo Espanol de Arte
The Art Bulletin
Art in America
Art Journal
Art Quarterly
Arte Espanol
Arte Veneta
Les Arts
Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Excursiones
Boletin del Museo del Prado
Boletin del Museo e Instituto Camon Aznar
British Journal of Aesthetics
Bolletino d' Arte
Le Bulletin de l' Art ancien et moderne
Bulletin des Musees de France. Archives des musees nationaux et de l' ecole du Louvre
The Burlington Magazine
Cahiers d' Art
Der Cicerone
Die Christliche Kunst
The Connoisseur
La Critica d' Arte
Dedalo
Dutch Art and Architecture Today
Emporium
FMR
Gazette des Beaux-Arts
Goya
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes
Monatshefte fur Kunstwissenschaft
National Art Collections Fund Review
Pantheon
Paragone-Arte
Reales Sitios
Renaissance Quarterly (μετονομάστηκε σε Renaissance News)
The Reprint Bulletin
Revue de l' Art
Revue de l' Art Ancien et Moderne
The Studio
Studies in the History of Art
Wiener Jahrbuch fur Kunstgeschichte
Zeitschrift fur Kunstgeschichte

 

- Ελληνόγλωσσα

Arti
Αμάλθεια
'Αστυ
Αττικόν Ημερολόγιον
Ελληνικά Γράμματα
Ελληνομνήμων ή σύμμικτα ελληνικά: σύγγραμμα ελληνικόν
Επιθεώρηση Τέχνης
Κρήτη
Κρητική Πρωτοχρονιά
Κρητικά Χρόνικα
Νέα Εστία
Νεοελληνική Φιλολογία ή Βιογραφίαι των εν τοις γράμμασι διαλαμψάντων Ελλήνων (1453-1821)  
Παρνασσός

-Χρησιμοποιήθηκαν τα ευρετήρια

Art Index
Art and Archaeology - Technical Abstracts
Bibliografia del Arte en Espana, Articulos de Revistas Clasificados por Materias
Bibliographie Internationale de l' Humanisme et de la Renaissance
Bibliographie - Zentralinstitut fur Kunstgeschichte
Index to Art Periodicals
Frick Art Reference Library
Repertoire International de la Litterature de l' Art
Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft

 

 

- Τα βασικά βιβλία (μονογραφίες, κατάλογοι, πρακτικά συνεδρίων) που χτησιμοποιήθηκαν ως βιβλιογραφικές πηγές

 

  • CAMON AZNAR, Jose, Dominico Greco, Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 1970
  • COSSIO, Manuel Bartolome, El Greco, 2vols. (I. Texto- II. Laminas), Madrid, Victoriano Suarez, 1908
  • GOLDSCHEIDER, Ludwig, The paintings of El Greco, London, Phaidon, 1938
  • GUDIOL, Jose, Domenicos Theotokopoulos. El Greco (1541-1614), Barcelona, Poligrafa, 1971
  • LEGENDRE, Maurice-HARTMANN, A., Domenico Theotocopouli dit El Greco, Paris, Hyperion, 1937
  • ALVAREZ LOPERA, Jose, De Cean a Cossio: la fortuna critica del Greco en el siglo XIX, 2vols., Madrid, Fundacion Universitaria Espanola, 1987
  • MAYER, August L., Dominico Theotocopuli-El Greco, Munich, Franz Hanfstaengl, 1926
  • SALAS, Xavier de - MARIAS, Fernando, El Greco y el Arte de su Tiempo. Las Notas de El Greco a Vasari, Madrid, Real Fundacion de Toledo, 1992
  • WETHEY, Harold E., El Greco and his School, 2vols., Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1962
  • Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος Κρης (κατάλογος έκθεσης), ΧΑΤΖΗΝΙΚΟΛΑΟΥ, Νίκος (επιμ.), Ηράκλειο, 1990
  • El Greco of Crete (Proceedings 1990), HADJINICOLAOU, Nicos (ed.), Heraclion, 1995
  • Ο Γκρέκο στην Ιταλία και η Ιταλική Τέχνη (κατάλογος έκθεσης), ΧΑΤΖΗΝΙΚΟΛΑΟΥ, Νίκος (επιμ.), Αθήνα, Εθνική Πινακοθήκη, Ρέθυμνο, Ινστιτούτο Μεσογειακών Σπουδών-Ίδρυμα Τεχνολογίας και Έρευνας, 1995
  • El Greco in Italy and Italian Art (Proceedings 1995), HADJINICOLAOU, Nicos (ed.), Rethymno, Crete University Press, 1999

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