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DIGITAL CRETE : ARCHEOLOGICAL ATLAS OF CRETE

ARCHEOLOGICAL ATLAS OF CRETE - ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES
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Site Information

GENERAL SITE NAME:

Phalasarna

SITE NAME:

Phalasarna - Ancient City

CLOSEST VILLAGE:

Falasarna

PREFECTURE:

CHANION

MUNICIPALITY :

KISSAMOU

PROVINCE :

Kissamos
Conservation Status

DECLARED SITE :

ZONE A :

ZONE B :

CONSERVATION :

well preserved

FENCED SITE :

-
Ministry of Culture - Declarations
CodeDeclaration Decisions
1. 1242/B/16.10.1973 (3) ΥΠΠΟ/ΑΡΧ/Α/Φ31/36852/2942
2. 23/Β/17.1.1995 (1) ΥΠΠΟ/ΑΡΧ/Α1/Φ25/61214/3228/20-12-1994/17-1-1995
Time-line of Usage
Time PeriodPlacenameSecondary names Dating VerificationCategoryCategory Verification
1. Classical KSKSKSKSOKSOKSKS Sure
Harbour facility
Sure
2. Hellenistic Sure
Harbour facility
Cemetery
Tower
Sure
Sure
Sure
3. Roman KSKSKSKSOKSOKSKS Sure
Harbour facility
Tower
Sure
Sure
Excavation Method
Excavation TypeExcavator/sExcavation Period
1. systematic CHATZIDAKI E. 1986-1987
2. systematic CHATZIDAKI E. , FROST F. 1988-
Geophysical Prospection
Researcher/sResearch InstituteBeginning of ResearchCompletion of ResearchGeophysical Prospection Method
1. PAPAMARINOPOULOS STAVROS UNIVERSITY OF PATRA 1987 1987
Seismic Refraction
2. STAMOU T 1987 1987
Seismic Refraction
Bibliography Reference of Geophysical Prospection
1. PAPAMARINOPOULOS ST., STAMOU T., "Geophysical studies on west Crete and the detection of a harbour insland at Falasarna", Marinos P. G., Koukis G. C., The Engineering Geology of Ancient Works, Monuments and Historical Sites- Preservation and Protection, Athens, , , 1079-1084
Modern Environmental Settings
TypeGeneral Comments
1.COASTAL REGION

General Archeological Information
Located on Crete’s north easternmost cape, the Hellenistic harbour city of Phalasarna is mentioned in the Periplous (Circumnavigation) of several ancient geographers (Skylax 47, Dionysius Kalliphontis 118-122, Stadiasmus 336). Together with ancient Kydonia, it was probably the only Cretan city with a ‘closed’ harbour. This term describes the fortified military harbours of the Classical and Hellenistic periods, the harbour moles of which were an extension of the city’s fortification walls. Although the Phalasarna harbour is considered a closed harbour, it also recalls the Phoenicians κώθωνες/‘goblet?’ of the western Mediterranean; a type of artificial harbour connected to the sea by a canal, but located outside of the city’s fortification walls. Although the Phalasarna harbour was integral to the ancient city’s fortifications, both the basin and the canal were probably entirely artificial. The impressive size of the fortifications surrounding the harbour suggests that Phalasarna was a pirate enclave in the Hellenistic period. Moreover, the site’s excavators claim that Metellus Creticus decommissioned the harbour during his 68-66 BC campaign. Since then, the ancient coastline has risen 6-9 m above sea level as a result of massive tectonic activity. Excavations under Elpida Chatzidaki began in 1986 and continued until the summer of 1987. Further excavations in 1988-91 were directed by Elpida Chatzidaki in collaboration with Frank Frost (University of California, Santa Barbara). The four or five defence towers surrounding the harbour, of which two were excavated, were part of the city’s fortifications. Preserved to a height of 4.5 m, with a 9 m diameter, the circular tower at the southeast end is divided into four quarters by two walls, 0.70 m thick. These dividing walls and their fill improved the tower’s stability, making it resistant to enemy attacks and earthquakes. The wall is built of sandstone blocks in isodomic courses, with a smooth surface characteristic of the period after 350 BC; a relief kymation decorates its outer surface. A cistern was incorporated at ground level inside the tower; its interior was painted black. A secondary use for the cistern may have been the supply of the Phalasarna pirates with fresh drinking water. The north tower was erected in the fourth century BC and rebuilt in the Late Hellenistic period. The remains of the second building phase are visible today. The large number of Megarian bowls of the third and second centuries BC found outside the tower on the side towards the harbour confirms this and the hypothesis that Phalasarna was destroyed during the Roman eradication of Cretan piracy under Metellus Creticus. The long, well-built wall discovered in the plain north and south of the tower was tentatively associated with a possible secondary harbour, although the space between this wall and the foot of the acropolis is barely sufficient for a ship to manoeuvre. Either way, this area was a kind of lagoon in antiquity and the wall’s foundations probably lay under water. The area east of the wall was probably backfilled with rubble during this period.

Photos
NATURAL SETTINGS PHOTOS
TOPOGRAPHIC_PLANS

Bibliography References
1.HADJIDAKI E., "Phalasarna", MYERS J.W., MYERS E.E., GADOGAN G., The Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1992, 244 - 247
2.ΑΝΔΡΕΑΔΑΚΗ-ΒΛΑΖΑΚΗ Μ., Ο Νομός Χανίων μέσα από τα μνημεία του. Από τα προϊστορικά χρόνια έως τη Ρωμαιοκρατία, μετ. 960-214-164-6, Αθήνα, ΤΑΠΑ, 2000
3.ΦΑΡΑΚΛΑΣ Ν., ΚΑΤΑΚΗ Ε., ΚΟΣΣΥΒΑ Α., ΞΙΦΑΡΑΣ Ν., ΠΑΝΑΓΙΩΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ ΕΜ., ΤΑΣΟΥΛΑΣ Γ., ΤΣΑΤΣΑΚΗ Ν., ΧΑΤΖΗΠΑΝΑΓΙΩΤΗ Μ., Οι Επικράτειες των Αρχαίων Πόλεων της Κρήτης, Ρέθυμνο, 1998
4.PAPAMARINOPOULOS ST., STAMOU T., "Geophysical studies on west Crete and the detection of a harbour insland at Falasarna ", Marinos P. G., Koukis G. C., The Engineering Geology of Ancient Works, Monuments and Historical Sites- Preservation and Protection, Athens, , , 1079-1084
5.ΧΑΤΖΗΔΑΚΗ Ε., "Ανασκαφικές εργασίες, Νομός Χανίων", ΑΔ Β2 Χρονικά, 42 (1987), 566-567
6.FROST F., HATJIDAKI E., "Excavations at the harbour of Phalasarna in Crete: the 1988 season", Hesperia, Vol. 59, No. 3 (1990), 513 - 527
7.ΚΑΜΗΛΑΚΗΣ Λ., "Φαλάσαρνα", Κρητική Εστία, 96 (1960), 12
8.ΚΑΜΗΛΑΚΗΣ Λ., "Φαλάσαρνα", Κρητική Εστία, 97 - Ιούλιος 1960 ((ΙΒ') 1960), 65
9.ΧΑΡΟΥΛΗΣ Ε., "Φαλάσαρνα - Φαλασάρνη", Κρητική Εστία, 103 - Ιανουάριος 1961 ((ΙΒ') 1961), 295 - 296
10.ΧΑΤΖΗΔΑΚΗ Ε., "Ανασκαφικές εργασίες, Νομός Χανίων", ΑΔ Β2 Χρονικά, 43 (1988), 554-555
11.FROST F. J., ΧΑΤΖΗΔΑΚΗ Ε., "Νομός Χανίων. Φαλάσαρνα", ΑΔ Β2 Χρονικά, 43 (1988), 559-560
12.FROST F., "Νομός Χανίων. Φαλάσαρνα", ΑΔ Β2 Χρονικά, 44 (1989), 460
13.DAUX G., "Chronique des fouilles et découvertes archéologiques en Grèce en 1960", BCH, 85 (1961), 896
14.ΤΖΕΔΑΚΙΣ Γ., "Αρχαιότητες και Μνημεία Δυτικής Κρήτης, Ανασκαφή Φαλασάρνης", ΑΔ Β2 Χρονικά, 24 (1969), 433-434
15.ΑΝΤΟΥΡΑΚΗΣ Γ. Β., "Φαλάσαρνα", Κρητική Εστία, 182 (1968), 215-217, 240
16.TOUCHAIS G., "Chronique des fouilles et découvertes archéologiques en Grèce en 1986", BCH, 111 (1987), 579
17.TOUCHAIS G., "Chronique des fouilles et découvertes archéologiques en Grèce en 1987", BCH, 112 (1988), 690-692
18.PARIENTE A., "Chronique des fouilles et découvertes archéologiques en Grèce en 1989", BCH, 114 (1990), 837
19.PARIENTE A., "Chronique des fouilles et découvertes archéologiques en Grèce en 1990", BCH, 115 (1991), 946
20.PARIENTE A., "Chronique des fouilles et découvertes archéologiques en Grèce en 1993", BCH, 118 (1994), 842
21.ΧΑΤΖΗΔΑΚΗ Ε., "Αρχαιολογικές Ειδήσεις 1987, 1. Προίστορικές και Κλασικές Αρχαιότητες, Ν. Χανίων-Επαρχία Κισσάμου, Φαλάσαρνα", Κρητική Εστία, ΠΕΡΙΟΔΟΣ Δ'-ΤΟΜΟΣ 2 (1988), 287-290
22.TOUCHAIS G., "Chronique des fouilles et découvertes archéologiques en Grèce en 1995", BCH, 120 C (1996), 1348
23.ΧΑΤΖΗΔΑΚΗ Ε., FROST FR., "Αρχαιολογικές Ειδήσεις 1988, 1. Προϊστορικές και Κλασικές Αρχαιότητες, Νομός Χανίων, Επαρχία Κισσάμου, Φαλάσαρνα", Κρητική Εστία, ΠΕΡΙΟΔΟΣ Δ'-ΤΟΜΟΣ 3 (1989-90), 256-261
24.ΧΑΤΖΗΔΑΚΗ Ε., "Αρχαιολογικές Ειδήσεις 1992-94, Νομός Χανίων, Επαρχία Κισσάμου, Φαλάσαρνα", Κρητική Εστία, ΠΕΡΙΟΔΟΣ Δ'-ΤΟΜΟΣ 5 (1994-96), 230-236
25.FOWLER H., "Archaeological News, Crete, Italian Discoveries", AJA, 4 (1900), 490
26.HADJIDAKI E., "Preliminary Report of Excavations at the Harbor of Phalasarna in West Crete", AJA, 4 (1988), 463-479


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