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DIGITAL CRETE : ARCHEOLOGICAL ATLAS OF CRETE

ARCHEOLOGICAL ATLAS OF CRETE - ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES
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Site Information

GENERAL SITE NAME:

Agia Triada

SITE NAME:

Agia Triada 2 - FES 2

CLOSEST VILLAGE:

Agios Ioannis

PREFECTURE:

IRAKLEIOU

MUNICIPALITY :

TYMPAKIOU

PROVINCE :

Pyrgiotissa
Conservation Status

DECLARED SITE :

ZONE A :

-

ZONE B :

-

CONSERVATION :

well preserved

FENCED SITE :

-
Ministry of Culture - Declarations
CodeDeclaration Decisions
1. 273/Β/12.5.1981 (1) ΥΠΠΟ/ΑΡΧ/Α1/Φ23/67886/2611
2. 666/Β/23.9.1970 (1) Αριθ. 9597
Time-line of Usage
Time PeriodPlacenameSecondary names Dating VerificationCategoryCategory Verification
1. Neolithic Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Sure
2. EM II Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Tomb cluster
Sure
Sure
3. EM III Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Tomb cluster
Sure
Sure
4. MM IA Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Sure
5. MM IB Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Sure
6. MM IIA Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Sure
7. MM IIB Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Sure
8. MM IIIA Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Villa
Sure
Sure
9. MM IIIB Sure
Palace
Villa
Sure
Sure
10. Late Minoan (LM) Sure
Metallourgic Kiln
Sure
11. LM IA Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Villa
Sure
Sure
12. LM IB Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Villa
Sure
Sure
13. LM II Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Villa
Sure
Sure
14. LM IIIA Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Villa
Cemetery
Sure
Sure
Sure
15. LM IIIB Sure
Settlement/Village/Site
Villa
Cemetery
Sure
Sure
Sure
16. Geometric Sure
Sanctuary
Sure
17. Hellenistic Sure
Sanctuary
Sure
Excavation Method
Excavation TypeExcavator/sExcavation Period
1. systematic LA ROSA V. 1990-
2. systematic Italiki Archaiologiki Scholi 1902-1914
Survey Method
Survey TypeResearcher/sResearch Period
1. systematic L. Vance Watrous, D. Hadji-Vallianou, H. Blitzer 1984 - 1987
Archaeo-Environmental Studies
Researcher/sResearch InstituteBeginning of ResearchCompletion of ResearchArchaeo-Environmental Method
1. FOLLIERI M.
Seed analysis
2. WILKENS B.
Zoo-archaeological analysis
Mammal bones
3. ISAAKIDOU V.
Bibliography Reference of Archaeo-Environmental Studies
1.WILKENS B., Hunting and breeding in Ancient Crete, -, -, ?
2.WILKENS B., The fauna from Italian Excavations on Crete, -, -, ?
3.ΙΣΑΑΚΙΔΟΥ Β., "Αρχαιολογικές μαρτυρίες για την πανίδα των θηλαστικών της Κρήτης από την εποχή του Χαλκού και την πρώιμη εποχή του Σιδήρου", ΜΟΥΣΕΙΟ ΦΥΣΙΚΗΣ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑΣ, Η πολιτισμική αξία των φυτών και των ζώων στην Κρήτη, από τη Νεολιθική εποχή μέχρι σήμερα, Ηράκλειο, ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ, 2001, 17-29
4.WILKENS B., "I resti faunistici di Haghia Triada (Creta) in eta neo e postpalaziale. Nota Preliminare", Atti e memorie del Secondo Congresso Internazionale di Micenologia, Roma-Napoli 14-20 Ottobre 1994, Roma, -, 1996, 1511-1520
5.FOLLIERI M., "Proviste alimentari vegetali in una casa minoica ad Haghia Triada (Creta)", Annuario, LVII (1985), 167-172
Modern Environmental Settings
TypeGeneral Comments
1.PLAIN AREA
2.RESOURT AREA

General Archeological Information
Located three kms west of the Phaistos palace. The palace hill was inhabited from the Neolithic period. Architectural remains of the EM and MM periods, which correspond to the site’s floruit, are rare.

The Minoan villa’s last construction phase dates to the MM or early LMI period, during which the new palaces of Phaistos and Knossos were also built. The villa has rooms with polythyra and light shafts, sanctuary rooms, storerooms, treasuries, workshops, staircases, porticoes, and courtyards. It has been variously identified as the summer residence of the Phaistos kings, the seat of a local ruler, or the administrative centre of the ‘Messara kingdom’ after Phaistos’s demise during the Neopalatial period. Moreover, the dining and reception rooms, as well as other finds, recall the ‘andreia’ of the historical period and the reunions that took place in them. The villa was destroyed c. 1450 BC, probably for the same reason that other Minoan sites were destroyed.

The Postpalatial, or Mycenaean, remains (1380-1100 BC) are extensive and well preserved. This period saw the construction of an agora with portico and a Mycenaean-type megaron. Both are a unique: the portico is the earliest and largest of its kind; the megaron is the only building of this type known so far in Crete. The megaron includes a paved courtyard, which produced EG pottery and figurines, dubbed ‘Sanctuary Square’ by its’ the Italian excavators. Open-air worship appears to have flourished here until the early Greek period. To the left of the square is a large Minoan building with many rooms, storerooms, and polythyra, considered the servants residence. South of this building is a rectangular sanctuary with fresco paintings of marine scenes on the floor and a built bench at the far end. The villa’s southwest wing comprises a complex of storerooms and a pottery workshop. The villa’s northwest corner is occupied by the main room complex, with two polythyra, two rooms with built benches on the west, treasuries with contained copper ingots, and an archive room with clay sealings. Further east are storerooms with relief pithoi.

Outside the west and south façades is a well-preserved paved road. North of the Sanctuary Square is the Mycenaean agora. This consists of a large open space, courtyard or square, and a large portico with alternating columns and piers. Behind the portico is a row of eight rooms, probably shops, accessible from the portico. West of the agora is a large section of the town. The houses belong to two chronological phases: the stratigraphically lower ones date to the Neopalatial period and are therefore contemporary with the villa, whereas the rest date to the Postpalatial period and are contemporary with the agora. The two large buildings constructed on the remains of the villa after the latter’s destruction are also contemporary with the Agora. The largest building, a Mycenaean-type megaron, was built over the storeroom complex. It is a rectangular structure, divided into three sections by thick walls. According to the excavators, it housed a local Achaean ruler. The second building was probably a shrine, since it contained stepped pyramidal stone bases for double axes. The paved courtyard was remodelled during this period to cover part of the ruined villa.

Towards the end of the Bronze Age (LMIIIC – Sub-Minoan period), and after this space had been abandoned, open-air worship flourished in the so-called ‘Sanctuary Square’ well into the early Greek period. In the Hellenistic period, a small sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Velchanos was built on the same spot. The site’s cemetery is also important.

In 1976, the Italian School of Archaeology at Athens excavated the remains of a kiln discovered by chance on the low hill above the villa. The 8 m long, elliptical kiln comprised two sections that communicated with one another. Although most of the pottery from the kiln dates to the LM period, a few Protopalatial sherds were also found. Large quantities of copper slag suggest that this was a metallurgical installation.

Photos
NATURAL SETTINGS PHOTOS

Bibliography References
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81.ΙΤΑΛΙΚΗ ΑΡΧΑΙΟΛΟΓΙΚΗ ΣΧΟΛΗ, "Ανασκαφικές εργασίες, Νομός Ηρακλείου", ΑΔ Χρονικά, 41 (1986), 224-225
82.LA ROSA V., "Ανασκαφικές εργασίες, Νομός Ηρακλείου, Αγία Τριάδα", ΑΔ Β2 Χρονικά, 48 (1993), 468-469
83.BATES W.N., "Archaeological News 1911. Agia Triada. The Italian Excavations", AJA, 16 (1912), 444
84.WATROUS L.V., "Ayia Triada: A New Perspective at the Minoan Villa", , 2 (1984), 123-34


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